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CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY 



P©nii|i?iili Sociotj 






I ! 



PROMOTING THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY, ft! 



[EF OP FREE NEGROES UNLAWFULLY HELD IN BONDAGE: AND 
FOR IMPROVING THE CONDITION OF THE AFRICAN RACE. 



I 



PHILADELPHIA: 
GRANT, FAIRES & RODGERS, PRINTERS. 

1876. 



CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY 



Piaiijlftaia SoeUty 



PROMOTING THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY, 



RELIEF OF FREE NEGROES UNLAWFULLY HELD IN BONDAGE : AND FOR 
IMPROVING THE CONDITION OF THE AFRICAN RACE. 




PHILADELPHIA: 
GRANT, F AIRES & RODGERS, PRINTERS. 

1875. 






OPFICEBS FOR 1875. 



PRESIDENT. 
DILLWYN PAEEISH. 



VICE PRESIDENTS. 
BENJAMIN COATES, T. ELL WOOD CHAPMAN. 

SECRETARIES. 

JOSEPH M. TRUMAN, JE., WILLIAM HEACOCK. 

TREASURER. 
CALEB CLOTHIEE. 

LIBRARIAN. 

JOSEPH M. TRUMAN, JE. 

RECORDER OP MANUMISSIONS. 

CALEB CLOTHIEE. 

COUNSELLORS. 
EDWAED HOPPEE, Philadelphia. 
GEOEGE H. EARLE, 
JOSEPH E. EIIOADS, " 
D. NEW LIN FELL, 
JOSEPH J. LEWIS, Chester. 

ACTING COMMITTEE. 

DILLWYN PARRISH, PASSMORE WILLIAMSON, 

WM. J. MULLEN, ALFRED H. LOVE, 

HENRY M. LAIN©, O. HOWARD W T ILSON, 

WILLIAM STILL. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

BENJAMIN COATES, T. ELLWOOD CHAPMAN, 

DILLWYN PARRISH, BENJAMIN P. HUNT, 

WM. HEACOCK, JOS. M. TRUMAN, JE., 

WILLIAM STILL, MOEDECAI BUZBY, 

HENEY M. LAING, MAECELLUS BALDEESTON, 

O. HOWARD \\TLSON, WILLIAM WHIPPEK. 
LUKENS WEBSTEE. 

COMMITTEE ON PROPERTY. 
CALEB CLOTHIEE, WILLIAM J. MULLEN, 

T. ELLWOOD CHAPMAN. 



CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. 



The " Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, 
the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage, and for Impro- 
ving the Condition of the African Race," celebrated its Centennial Anni- 
versary at Concert Hall, in Philadelphia, Wednesday, April 14th, 1875. 
The organization is the oldest and most efficient of all that rallied around 
the same humane cause, but has received less recognition than others that 
accomplished no tithe of its work. 

The history of the Society touches that of the Western Continent. Spain 
enslaved and exported Indians here as early as 1495. The difficulty of 
procuring Indians and the need for labor induced the Spaniards to import 
negroes to the New World soon after. The Emperor Charles V. licensed 
a Fleming to ship negroes to the West Indies. Other European nations 
imitated this conduct, and slavery was naturalized. Before 1776 more 
than 300,000 negroes arrived. The Continental Congress forbade the 
importation to the United States in 1776, but Congress was forbidden by 
the Constitution to stop the trade before 1808, although Washington, Ham- 
ilton, Jefferson, Jay, Franklin, Madison and many of their great cotem- 
poraries saw its conflict with the Declaration and opposed its tolerance. 
They hoped, however, that an institution so foreign to the genius of the 
land, to Christianity, education, civilization and industry would die 
from its own baseness, and shrank from awakening sectional feeling and 
interfering with business interests. They even conceded to the South some 
advantages for preserving the system, under a conviction that it must die 
there as it had died at the North. The politicians and merchants were 
foremost in this compromise between right and wrong, and the mass of 
the people were not unwilling abettors. The old Abolition Society did 
not participate in this dangerous and costly blunder. They were saga- 
cious, principled and humane men. Revolting from an inhumanity so 

3 



gross, inexcusable and dangerous, they associated to effect by concert what 
they dared not attempt individually : proclaimed their intent and under- 
took what none lived to see realized. 

One of the first important steps of the Society was the last important 
public act of Benjamin Franklin. He as President signed a Memorial 
addressed by the Society to Congress in 1790, asking that body " to devise 
means for removing the inconsistency of slavery from the American peo- 
ple," and " to step to the very verge of its power for discouraging every 
species of traffic in the persons of our fellow-men." The history of the 
doings of this old Abolition Society is unwritten ; and they are so involved 
in all that was attempted and done by either political party to render the 
land free in fact as in name, and in all the vexed questions of a century, 
that they can hardly ever be dissociated. But the individuals who adhered 
to the truth, and defended the common cause of government, of constitu- 
tional law, of human rights and national well-being in hopeless days, and 
by this devotion bred the sense that finally won their wishes — these indi- 
viduals will be loved for their truth and honored for their conduct always. 
They were crushed, and even hope itself seemed lost when the Fugitive 
Slave Law enacted more than ever had been conceded, and carried the slave- 
master under the escort of civil power, with a right to demand military 
assistance, into every free State. Still they believed that Eight lived " the 
eternal years of God," and were undismayed by the momentary defeat and 
stimulated to greater effort. Despite growing obloquy not unattended by 
personal danger and loss of property, they retained their faith and con- 
tinued their labors ; they ameliorated the condition of some and succored 
the wants of others, enslaved or fugitive ; reunited families that had es- 
caped and placed them in safety ; and when the old members were gath- 
ered to the majority, full of years and full of honors, confident of their re- 
ward, their children filled their places as worthily and enlisted others, — 
among them those who now exult in the fruition of a hope so long delayed — 
the attainment of a purpose so necessary for the nation and human progress. 

The first object of the Society has been realized. On all the continent 
no slave now draws breath ; and those who remain enslaved on its adjacent 
islands can foresee the date of their final emancipation. The Society is 
now remitted to its second purpose — the improvement of the condition of 
the African race ; a labor as great perhaps as its predecessor, — certainly 
as important to the nation, the race and the world ; and that is to be pro- 
secuted steadily, against many discouragements as well as under many en- 
couragements, until the whole end of the early organization has been ful- 
filled in every detail and to the spirit as well as to the letter. 



5 

The following is the Programme of Exercises, as issued by the Committee. 

1775. CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY 1875- 

OF THE 

PENNSYLVANIA SOCIETY 
FOR PROMOTING THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY, 

TO BE HELD AT CONCERT HALL, 

CHESTNUT ST., ABOVE TWELFTH, 

On Wednesday Afternoon, April 14th, 1875, 
at 2i o'clock, p. m. 



SINGING BY THE HUTCHINSON FAMILY. 



PROGRAMME. 

CHAIRMAN: 

Hon. Henry Wilson, Vice President of United States. 

PRAYER, Rev. W. H. Furness, D. D. 

HISTORICAL ORATION, . . . Dr. Wm. Elder. 

ADDRESSES BY 

Frederick Douglass, Lu< ret] \ Mott, Elizuh Wright, jr., 

Robert Purvis, Mrs. F. E. W. Harper, C.C.Burleigh, 

Hon. W. S. Peirce, Bishop D. A. Payne, Prof. J. M. Langston, 

A. M. Powell, Abby Kelley Forster, and others. 



DOXOLOGY. 



BENEDICTION, 
Bisii i» !• Campbell, 



The above Speakers will participate in the Evening Exercises, to be held at 
Bethel Church, Sixth below Pine, at 7J o'clock, P. M. 



COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS. 

Wm. Still, Dillwyn Parrish, Joseph M. Truman, Jr., 

Chairman, PASSMORE WILLIAMSON, Henry M. Laing. 

700 Arch Street. 



At the appointed hour, Wednesday afternoon, April 14th, William 
Still, Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, called the meeting 
to order. The stand was properly decorated with the national ensign, and 
bouquets of tasteful flowers adorned the desk. Conspicuous on either side 
of the Chairman, were men eminent in the annals of the Society and in 
the affairs of the Union. Hon. Henry Wilson, Vice-President of the 
United States, occupied the central seat in the front row. Frederick 
Douglass, the eminent and eloquent champion of his race sat near ; 
supported by the gifted orator, Robert Purvis, and countenanced by Lu- 
cretia Mott, Abby Kelley Foster, and others scarcely less known. 
Members of the Society of Friends were conspicuous everywhere, 
and tempered the brilliant colors of the assembly by the sedate tone of 
their attire. They who had done so much to make the Centennial pos- 
sible were very properly prominent in its observance. Ex-Governor Cur- 
tin, C. C. Burleigh, Prof. Langston, Bishop Campbell, Passmore William- 
son, Elizur Wright, Henry Armitt Brown, Esq., Dillwyn Parrish, 
Frances E. W. Harper, Hon. W. S. Peirce, H. M. Laing, Sarah Pugh, 
Simon Barnard, Cyrus Elder, Rachel W. Townsend, Geo. Alsop, Yardley 
Warner, Hannah Cox, Dinah Mendenhall,Geo.W. Taylor, Elijah F. Penny- 
packer, and others whose services won the honor, were grouped on the stage, 
in the sight of a large audience. The President of the Society then called 
the assemblage to order, and announced that the Hon. Henry Wilson, 
Vice-President of the United States, would preside. He, coming forward, 
acknowledged the reception accorded him and called upon Rev. W. H. 
Furness, D. D., to invoke the Divine blessing upon the meeting. Dr. 
Furness did so as follows : 

THE INVOCATION. 

Oh Thou, E^er-Present and All-surrounding Maker and Lord of all 
things, Thou hast Thy being in us as we have our being in Thee. We 
invoke now the inspiration and the blessing of Thy felt presence in our 
hearts. We rejoice that while there are so many occasions of strife and 
of separation among men, there is yet one cause for which strangers may 
meet as friends, as brothers and sisters of one household. Thus coming 
together now, we rejoice in the manifestation of Thy Spirit, in the precious 
memories which this day brings upon the cause of freedom and humani- 
ty, ever advancing even from the smallest beginnings to the great 
triumph which it has been our privilege to witness. Thou hast given us 
to see what wise and faithful men, martyrs, and prophets longed to see, 
but never saw save in prophetic vision. Truly is Thy doing marvellous 



in our eyes. Not unto us, not unto men be the glory ; for no flesh can 
glory in Thy most manifest presence. 

And now with one heart do we pray that the heart of this great nation 
may not die and lie buried under the mountain of its worldly prosperity ; 
but may our just and equal institutions have their due influence, and day 
by day and hour by hour may they breathe into the hearts of this people 
that sacred sentiment of human respect which must be the life of our 
life, and which shall so expand all hearts that the fetters of pride and pre- 
judice shall fall away, even as the chains have fallen from the limbs of 
the slave. May Thy kingdom come, O God ! the kingdom of Thy truth 
and justice, and Thy will be done on earth as it is done by the angels of 
Thy presence. Give us this day and at this hour what is needful for our 
souls ; may we forgive as we hope to be forgiven. Lead us not into temp- 
tation, but deliver us from evil ; for Thine is the kingdom, the power and 
the glory, forever and ever. 



ADDRESS BY THE VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED 

STATES. 

Hon. Henry Wilson, Vice-President of the United States, then delivered 
a Commemorative oration, with an earnest eloquence attested by his long 
sympathy for and aid of the Society, that was inspired by patriotic joy 
and national pride, and riveted the unflagging attention of the great 
audience, who drowned its conclusion in applause. The Oration was as 
follows : 

Ladies and Gentlemen : The duty of presiding over the proceedings 
of this day has been assigned me by the Board of Managers. Gratefully 
I accept this position, and at once enter upon the performance of its duties. 
To be chosen to preside over this centennial celebration of the anniversary 
of a society established for purposes such as those for which this society 
was established, and actuated by motives such as those which actuated 
this society— enrolling among its members names so illustrious, and accom- 
plishing a work so grand— is to me one of the happiest and proudest 
events of my life. [Applause.] The organization of this society a cen- 
tury ago was indeed a great event, and its history is one of the purest, 
grandest, and noblest of any organization in the history of the world. Its 
effect and influence in the early days of the Republic were seen and 
acknowledged. Its labors at a later period— at the time when the cruel 
fugitive slave act was being executed in the country— were seen and felt ; 



and the evidences of those labors were manifested in this city, in the coun- 
ties around about you, and in the border counties of Pennsylvania. The 
country has never known more faithful men — and women, too — than have 
been connected with the Pennsylvania Abolition Society. 

There is to-day, thank God, no slave in the Republic ! [Applause.] 
The fetters were not melted off by kindly influences, but were stricken off 
by the rude hand of civil war. The chains fell not from the limbs of the 
slave by the conversion of the master, but by the interposition of the 
strong hand of power. And, ladies and gentlemen, remember to-day, on 
this hundredth anniversary of the organization of this great society, that 
the work for which this society was organized is not yet accomplished. 
The slave is free, but the system of slavery left behind it influences, and 
powers, and scars which only the humanity, the Christianity of the Ameri- 
can people can work away. Dr. Furness alluded to the falling of the 
chains from the limbs of the slave, and has prayed to God that the time 
might come when human passions and prejudices might so fall away. The 
thought is a beautiful one. Humane Christianity ! It should be the 
vital, animating spirit of this nation to work away these prejudices, to lift 
up the poor and the lowly, and make the Republic that which in deed and 
in truth it ought to be — a Christian land, where every man is fully pro- 
tected in his rights as a citizen. 

I fear, ladies and gentlemen, that there is in the country to-day, a coun- 
ter-revolution against the colored man. It must be met by the men whose 
hearts are bathed in the anti-slavery sentiment, and who mean, God bless- 
ing us, that the spirit of anti-slavery shall pervade the whole land, North 
and South. [Applause.] Let it be understood, then, henceforth and 
forever, that no matter what time it takes, no matter what it costs, the 
sentiment of the Abolition Society of Pennsylvania, with that of kin- 
dred and more recent organizations, must pervade this land ; that the 
condition of the colored men must be improved ; that the condition of the 
poor white men who suffered by slavery must be improved — aye, too, that 
the condition of that deluded but smitten and stricken section of our 
country must be improved. Let it be understood then that while we love 
the black man, and mean to lift him up, to elevate and protect him, and 
to aid him in the grand work of self-improvement, we also mean to lift 
up, elevate, and improve the poor-white men whom slavery smote. Aye, 
and we mean to improve the condition of the erring and sinning masses, 
and to build up our country and make our country what it ought to be — 
an example and an inspiration for the nations. [Great applause.] • 



The Hutchinson Family sang one of the melodies they made familiar 
in former years. 

Eobert Purvis, Esq., was introduced to read the letters of invited guests 
who were unable to attend. He said as a preliminary: 

Mr. Chairman : Of the letters that are placed in my hands I shall 
read but a few. The first is from the great Pioneer ; the man who caught 
the inspiration from the pamphlet of the Quaker girl in England, who, as 
against gradualism, declared the doctrine of immediatism as alike the 
right of the slave and the duty of the master. This letter, sir, is from 
William Lloyd Garrison. [Applause.] It reads as follows : 

Boston, April 12, 1875. 
Dear Mr. Still: Honored with a pressing invitation to participate 
in the Centennial anniversary of the Pennsylvania Society for the Pro- 
motion of the Abolition of Slavery, etc., to be celebrated in Philadelphia 
on the 14th instant, I can only return my thanks for the same, regretting 
that circumstances oblige me to be absent. This celebration is certainly 
as suggestive as it is unique. An Anti-slavery Society a century old ! 
And of that long period only the last ten years have witnessed the aboli- 
tion of that inhuman slave system, in opposition to which the Society was 
organized ! Half a million of slaves at the commencement multiplying to 
four millions before their emancipation ! Ninety years of persistent, 
active, shameless slave-holding, slave-hunting, slave-trading, by a people 
claiming to have Christ for their divine examplar, the Bible for their only 
rule of faith and practice, and genuine democracy as the pole-star of their 
political form of government ! Ninety years of sinful compromises to per- 
petuate an oppression, " one hour of which," so testified Thomas Jefferson, 
" was fraught with more misery than ages of that which our fathers rose 
in rebellion to oppose !" Ninety years busily occupied in an insane attempt 
to bring into concord light and darkness, God and Mammon, Christ and 
Belial, and to make homogeneous ideas, customs, and institutions inhe- 
rently antagonistical ! And this awful state of thiugs at last ending, not 
in a general repentance and contrition, but by a bloody retribution long 
ago predicted, and for many years admonishingly set forth by the true 
friends of equal rights, if justice were not speedily done. " Thus saith 
the Lord : Ye have not hearkened unto me, in proclaiming liberty, every 
one to his brother, and every man to his neighbor: behold, I proclaim a, 
liberty for you, saith the Lord, to the sword, to the pestilence, and to 
the famine." What a record of hypocrisy and double-dealing! 

Will it be said that the past, with whatever of shame or guilt attaches 



10 

to it, ought to be buried in oblivion ; that, as not a slave is left to clank 
his fetters in all the land, conciliation and good-will are the duties of the 
hour; that to revive such recollections can only tend to perpetuate feelings 
of alienation and bitterness? Suggestions like these have a plausible 
sound, but they are illusory. Our progress in unity, in all that tends 
to make a people truly great and prosperous, will be exactly in propor- 
tion to our willingness to contemplate the causes of our fearful visitations, 
that we may all the more earnestly "study the things that make for 
peace," by securing to all the inhabitants of the land their God-given 
rights, so that neither under the National nor any State government shall 
there be any intolerance toward any class on the American soil. Admitting 
that we have many reasons for " thanking God and taking courage," I 
think that there are also many others which should serve to stimulate us 
to earnest and persistent action in well-doing by remembering that " the 
price of liberty is eternal vigilance." May your celebration be in all 
respects worthy of the event ! 

Yours, for universal freedom, Wm. Lloyd Garrison. 



Letters regretting the inability of the writers to be present were also 
received from Wendell Phillips of Massachusetts, John G. Whittier of 
Massachusetts, President U. S. Grant, George W. Curtis of New York, 
John Needles of Maryland, Rev. John Sargeant of Massachusetts, Joseph 
A. Dugdale of Iowa, Rev. Samuel May of Boston, Rev. R. Collyer of 
Illinois, James G. Thompson of South Carolina, George W. Julian of 
Indiana, Edmund Quincy of Massachusetts, Gen. B. F. Butler of Massa- 
chusetts, Gov. Hartranft, Mayor Stokley and A. B. Bradford of Penn- 
sylvania, R. F. Walcott of Massachusetts, A. M. Powell of Massachusetts, 
Samuel M. Janney of Virginia, Rev. C B. Ray of New York, Rev. John 
F. Sargeant of Massachusetts, Rev. George Whipple of New York, John 
P. Green of Ohio, and Rev. O. B. Frothingham of New York, and Geo. 
F. McFarland. Brief extracts from these were read. 

Amesbuky, 24th Third Month, 1875. 

Dillwyn Parrish : — My dear Friend : — I regret more than I can 
express that I cannot be with thee and other dear old friends and co- 
workers in the cause of freedom on the occasion of the Centennial Anni- 
versary of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society. 

For, indeed, it is an event of no ordinary significance, this centennial 
of the first society ever formed for the abolition of slavery. 

It commemorates one of the great aggressive movements of Christian 
civilization against the still surviving barbarism of an age of brute force 
and selfishness. 



11 

What a history is connected with it ! What a struggle between all that 
is best and all that is vilest in human nature has marked its progress ! 

What faith, what courage, what noble aspirations, what generous self- 
sacrifice has it known ! How many blessings from souls rescued from the 
intolerable hell of slavery have made the sleep of its members sweeter 
and compensated them for their life-long labors ! 

Looking over its roll of membership, we find the names of men whose 
memory is precious — the elect and called of God to the noblest service — 
men every way worthy of a State whose foundations were laid in prayer, 
and to whose charter of rights and liberties the joint wisdom of Penn 
and Sydney contributed. 

The great Centennial of American Independence of the coming year 
will show that no State has a prouder record than Pennsylvania: but in 
all her rich inheritance of renown she has nothing better than her Aboli- 
tion Society, the first of its kind in the world's history, numbering among 
its supporters such men as Franklin, Baldwin, Rush, Pemberton, Mifflin, 
Shipley, Needles, and thy own honored father. 

The world slowly emerging from the darkness of the Stone Age, still, 
doubtless, over-estimates its warrior champions; but the time is not far 
distant when justice will be done to the heroes of the bloodless victories 
of Christian civilization and progress. 

Their armor rings on a fairer field 

Than Greek or Trojan ever trod ; 
For freedom's sword is the blade they wield, 

And the light above is the smile of God. 

So far as the abolition of slavery is concerned, the work of the society is 
done. Mainly upon the colored people themselves now depends the ques- 
tion whether, by patient industry, sobriety and assiduous self-culture, they 
shall overcome the unchristian prejudice still existing against them, or 
by indolence, thriftlessness, and moral and physical degradation, they 
shall confirm and strengthen it. 

But there is on the part of all who have sought their freedom, no lack 
of occasion for labor in their behalf in accordance with the very spirit 
and letter of the constitution of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, 
which is pledged to " the relief of free negroes." 

All that can be done consistent with the constitutional right of States, 
should be done for their protection by the General Government, and there 
is do philanthropic object at the present time more deserving of encourage- 
ment than that of the education of the children of freedmen. 



12 

In this point of view there is still work for the old parent society, and 
it has a legitimate right to exist and continue its labors of love so long 
as there is prejudice to overcome or ignorance to be enlightened. 

Accept, dear friend, assurances of old-time love and respect from thy 
friend. John G. Whittier. 



THE HISTORICAL ORATION. 

Dr. William Elder was then introduced by the chairman with some 
complimentary remarks, observing that he needed no introduction to a 
Pennsylvania audience. Dr. Elder spoke extemporaneously, and dis- 
cussed the progress of Abolition from the first suggestion to its victory, as 
follows : 

Ladies and Gentlemen : In assuming to discharge the duty which 
has been requested and required of me by the Committee of Arrange- 
ments, I shall follow the line of thought which has been designated for 
me by the committee. It is unfortunate that in this instance they should 
have selected "the wrong man " for "the right place;" inasmuch as the 
subject of which I am to treat being of an historical character, and there- 
fore necessarily dependent mainly upon facts and dates, should properly 
be presented from written notes, whereas my habit has been during all 
my life to speak extemporaneously. I once tried to read in public a 
lecture, but it was the only time I ever essayed such a task. Aside from 
that, there is this consideration : the facts and the dates that go to make 
up the history of this hundred years whose close you are now here to cele- 
brate, and the circumstances and influences that hover around that 
momentous era, cannot now be memorized — nay, it is impossible to read 
them to you because they have as yet not all been written, and the day 
has not yet come when they can be fully comprehended. If stated with 
only comparative accuracy and amplitude, what a compendium of events, 
what a chronology would not that history comprise — what a host of 
memories would rise up to confront us here to-day ! Who now can faith- 
fully trace the current and river of this great anti-slavery influence to the 
rills and brooks and spring-tops and mountain-heads from which it started ? 
I repeat, I do not think the time has yet come when even the best of us 
can fully comprehend this influence. I know not in which direction the 
most powerful springs of action are to be traced. Sometimes I have 
thought it was to the leading minds of the times, and that history would 
so record it. Again, it has occurred to me that in my own experience it 



13 

was in the common heart of the masses of the people that I had found the 
strongest resources for the little labor that I may have performed in the 
cause. 

The epoch in which your Society had its origin is marked by events 
such as these. In 1776, Friends' Yearly Meeting took the decisive 
step of subjecting to discipline and disownment members who held slaves 
over lawful age. Emancipations about this time became very frequent, 
both within and without the Quaker community. Without following any 
exact order in point of date, the facts are that in 1778 Jefferson had a 
bill passed by the Legislature of Virginia abolishing the foreign slave 
trade — I mean prohibiting the importation of slaves into that State. In 
1787 he provided, in the bill for the cession to the old Confederacy of the 
Northwestern Territory, (embracing within it the territorial limits of the 
States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois), that slavery should cease forever in 
that large domain after the year 1800; this provision, which was intro- 
duced by the Virginia Legislature, being identical in terms with that of 
the celebrated Wilmot Proviso offered in 184G in respect to any and all 
territory that should be acquired from Mexico. In 1772 the famous 
Somerset case was decided by Lord Mansfield, though Chief Justice Hole- 
ton's decision was made in much stronger terms at least eighty years 
before. The Chief Justice decided that no law of England ever made a 
slave ; that " there were villeins indeed, but no chattel slaves ;" that the 
absolute right to the body of a man was not English. Jefferson's Notes 
on the State of Virginia, printed in Paris in 1784, contained the famous 
passage, with which you are all familiar : " The Almighty has no attri- 
bute that could take part with us in a servile war ; I tremble for my coun- 
try when I feel that God is just." 

In 1780 the Legislature of Pennsylvania passed the act for the gradual 
abolition of slavery in this State. In 1770, Granville Sharpe first appears 
in the conduct of the Somerset case. Clarkson and Wilberforce must be 
dated about the year 1785, and "William Pitt, chief of the Ministry, and 
Charles James Fox, leader of the Opposition, joined in antagonism to the 
slave trade in 1790. The English House of Commons passed a bill for 
the suppression of the slave trade in 1793 and again in 1794, which bill 
failed in the House of Peers, but was finally passed in 1807. In 1777 the 
State of Vermont passed an act abolishing slavery in that State. At that 
time Vermont had less than three hundred slaves within her territory. 
Pennsylvania, when she abolished her system of slavery, held nearly four 
thousand slaves. According to the interpretation of her constitution sub- 
sequently rendered by the Supreme Court, Massachusetts abolished slavery 



14 

in 1780 by her constitution. On the 15th of May, 1791, France, by her 
National Assembly, virtually granted equal political rights to free men, 
without regard to color. 

To this list I now add the date of the organization of your own Society. 

It was organized on the 14th of April, 1775, with John Baldwin as its 
President, and Thomas Harrison as its Secretary ; with whom were very 
soon associated, in sentiment and in action, men whose names are leading 
and inextinguishable in the history of our country. In 1787 Benjamin 
Franklin was elected President and Dr. Benjamin Rush one of its Secre- 
taries. The list embraces some two hundred and forty-four names. 

These facts and dates define and embrace the time of the National birth- 
day of the United States of America, and the whole period is marked by 
an epidemic of abolitionism, both in these States and the whole of Western 
Europe. 

Here I am led to remark that while a history looks up the day-springs 
of the great events which it narrates, there is not in reality, either in 
science, morals, or politics, any means of fixing the dates of discoveries 
so absolutely as to mark with precision the areas of their great revolutions. 
These dates are in facts as inconclusive as was Topsy's genealogy, who, 
when asked who made her, replied, " I dunno : I 'spect I growed." The 
greatest and gravest of the received authorities seems compelled to declare 
that it was in the beginning that God made the heavens and the earth, and 
no more definite date can be given to any great event which He has 
inspired. Exactly where one wave of the ocean begins or ends is not 
seen ; it is only toward their crests that they become clearly distinct. We 
must, therefore, content ourselves with stating in general that in this 
wickedness of personal slavery the whole world lay until some time about 
the middle of the eighteenth century, when a new world of men and things 
began to emerge, so fruitful of wonders during its first century of progress 
that no tongue can tell, no mind can comprehend them. About this epoch 
the spirit of reform moved abroad on the face of the earth, and the greater 
and lesser lights gathered into suns, and moons, and stars, and divided 
the day from the night; moral, religious, and political liberty broke into 
insurrection and revolution, and their course has ever since run from vic- 
tory to victory, " leading captivity captive," until now, upon the great 
centennial of our own national history, the chattel slavery of man in the 
whole civilized world is dead. Who is sufficient for these things? What 
colossal intellect can retrace even the topmost stepping-stones that marked 
the progress of the last half of the eighteenth century in the abolishment 
of the slaveries of every form which hung upon it at its beginning ? Think 



15 



of the biographical dictionary that should hold the deeds of the heroes of 
this great history. Think of the chronological list that would give their 
dates. 

We turn now to a second period of our history. A member of the 
convention which formed our Federal Constitution, upon returning to his 
Massachusetts constituency, felicitated them with the announcement that 
they had given slavery its death-blow. Yet that was twenty years before 
Congress abolished the foreign slave trade of the United States. Even 
then the atmosphere of the whole civilized world was bright in the light 
of anti-slavery sentiment and abolition effort. At this time (the period 
of the formation of the Federal Constitution), Franklin and Rush pre- 
sided over the labors of the Pennsylvania Society : John Jay and Alex- 
ander Hamilton were President and Vice-president of the New York 
Manumission Society. Other associations were formed in the other 
Eastern States, and they were vigorous and hopeful in the South ; in Vir- 
ginia, Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Georgia, and North Carolina. 
The doctrines of these associations went, I think, no further than gradual 
abolition. What Franklin and his associates meant by asking Congress, 
in 1790, to " devise means for removing the inconsistency of slavery from 
the American people, and to step to the very verge of its power for dis- 
couraging every species of traffic in the persons of our fellow-men," is 
easily inferred. This petition, signed by Franklin as the president of 
your Society, was sent to the first Congress, at not later than its second 
session. 

Now the third epoch of this eventful history opens upon us. After the 
achievements and triumphs of the times of 1776 and the abolition of the 
foreign slave trade of the United States, there was a lull in the movement 
of the people of these two countries until, in 1<619, the Missouri question 
awakened the slumbering energies of the Northern States. During the 
period of this comparative inaction the phase in the fortunes of our colored 
people had been steadily assuming portentous features. In 1793 Whit- 
ney produced his cotton gin for the separation of the seed from the fibre. 
Before that a negro woman could not clean more than one pound in a day. 
Whitney's machine finished three hundred weight per diem, or did three 
hundred and thirty times the amount of work that a slave could perform. 
This made the cotton production very profitable, and slavery, employed 
in the culture of the plant, rose proportionately in value. Somewhere 
between 1807 and 1820 the invention of machinery and the application 
of steam in the manufacture into all the forms of use brought into the 
field of this warfare an auxiliary to the slavery forces that, for a long 



16 

while, was perfectly irresistible. Humanity, morality, political consistency, 
national honor, and national safety — all were overpowered, and the exten- 
sion of slavery to new territory and the acquisition of other new territory 
for its extension became the ruling policy of the South and of their sym- 
pathizers in the North. 

In this state of things the, first square fight between the parties came 
upon us in 1819-20. The old love of liberty aroused, struggled manfully 
and bravely, but the axe had not been laid at the root of the tree in the 
Revolutionary period; only some of its branches had been lopped off, 
while others grew into great strength under the fostering influence of the 
golden showers that Trade poured upon them. The contest of that day 
was lost to the friends of Liberty. In the trial hour, when the result of 
the battle hung upon a doubt, the Great Compromiser came into the 
struggle, won his title of Pacificator, and for long years afterwards the 
compromisers, pacificators, and Union-savers left behind them the strife 
they had so often settled and compromised, to be finally settled and pacifi- 
cated by the bayonet. 

After the defeat of 1818-20 the losing party began to look to the effi- 
ciency of the weapons they had used in the battle which they had so sadly 
lost. They saw that in this Republic Cotton had become King de facto, 
and that slavery had absolutely reached the sovereignty. They could not 
submit to defeat, though the glaring fact confronted them that slaves of 
not more than the average market price of $25 in 1790 had risen to $300 
before 1830, while their number had swollen from not quite seven hundred 
thousand to above three millions. Gradual abolition and assistance to 
negroes unlawfully held in bondage had utterly failed of their hopes. 

These weapons struck wide of the mark. The system of slavery itself 
was clearly the heart an<? source of all the evils engendered by it, and 
they now knew that at that vital point every blow must be aimed. Gran- 
ville Sharpe, as early as 1787, in a society formed in London, for the sup- 
pression of the slave trade, insisted upon opposing slavery also. In this 
he was, perhaps, twenty years ahead of his compeers, Wilberforce and 
Clarkson. The next earliest I have met with was Elizabeth Heyrick, of 
London, I believe, who, in 1823, published a pamphlet entitled "Imme- 
diate, Not Gradual, Emancipation." The friends of the great cause, 
however, did not immediately adopt the doctrine ; they graduated slowly 
through gradualism, or colonization, until they finally took the vantage 
ground of Immediateism. And there they stood, without dodging or 
apology, through terrible trials and sufferings, until the common foe 
awoke the common wrath of the whole nation, and Abraham Lincoln 



17 

officially gave' the foe the coup de grace which Granville Sharpe and 
Elizabeth Heyrick meant for it. The armies of the Union empowered 
him to deal " the stroke of mercy," that at once put the monster out of the 
field of battle, and out of his pain in dying. 

The next Immediateist who stands conspicuously in the story of this 
struggle is Benjamin Lundy, who, beginning in 1815 in St. Clairsville, 
Ohio, there organized a society of five hundred members. Soon after- 
wards he purchased out of his scanty means a newspaper, and devoted it 
entirely to the promotion of the anti-slavery cause. He removed this 
paper, which he called The Genius of Universal Emancipation, to Balti- 
more ; where, in 1829, Wm. Lloyd Garrison joined him in its editorial 
management. Lundy connected colonization with his scheme, favoring 
Texas or Hayti, or other suitable localities, as the promised land for the 
great modern exodus from our Egypt. He has never, perhaps, been ex- 
ceeded in zeal, labor, and sacrifice by any philanthropist. Mr. Gar- 
rison himself was a distinguished Colonizationist, and in Baltimore, in 
1830, he was imprisoned for alleged libel published upon a slave-trader, 
and for disturbing the public peace. His trials and labors then began. 
I cannot detail them if I would. I need not if I could. 

About 1840-41, the date of the establishment of The Liberator, the 
strife began that was destined to introduce the fifth and last act of this 
grand tragedy. This fourth period, covering the thirty years' war of ar- 
guments for weapons ; a war under the forms of peace ; a war at once de- 
fensive and aggressive was a battle to the death, yet a battle that " took 
from conquest its crime, and from victory its chains." On one side was ar- 
rayed the slaveow/ier of the South, and the slaveholder of the North ; on 
the other, the many-headed mass of the friends of Liberty. Slavery now 
no longer stood the apologist of its attendant evils, but the bold prosecu- 
tor of the disturbers of the public peace. Everything that malice and 
fear could suggest, the monster practiced. It bribed and bullied our poli- 
ticians ; it dominated the press ; it profaned the pulpit ; it put its livery 
upon religion, and dressed our philosophy in its cap and bells ; it denied 
the right of petition to our people ; it branded our birthright, liberty of 
speech, as incendiary ; it proposed to censure one of our representatives 
for asking whether a petition from slaves might be offered in the Federal 
House of Representatives, and well-nigh killed one of our senators in his 
seat because of his steady aud persistent defence of public justice. It re- 
pealed all that had any good in it of the Missouri Compromise; it inau- 
gurated a war with Mexico for the extension of its territorial dominion, 
and " snaked in " Texas, with a territory six times the size of Massachu- 
2 



18 

setts, and doomed it to slavery. This move in regard to Texas it accom- 
plished under the forms of an international treaty, when it could not have 
accomplished it under any form of law or precedent. And it finally de- 
cided that the colored people had " no rights which white men were bound 
to respect." 

At the close of the rebellion we had upon our hands, say, four millions 
of slaves. Immediateism then boldly undertook the risks and performed 
the duty of emancipating this host — a host greater by far in number than 
was that which Moses was able to conduct in safety through the desert 
into the promised land. What are the results ? 

England emancipated her slaves mainly because they were worthless as 
property to their masters, but urged, also doubtless by sentiments of reli- 
gion and morality; but 70,000 of her emancipated countrymen were hung 
in the reign of Henry VIII. Now, in relative ratio to population, this 
number of executions for crime would equal, in the population of Penn- 
sylvania, five victims per day. These homeless wretches were hung for 
burglary, larceny, trespass, and vagrancy — for all the offences that poverty 
and destitution could suggest. This experience strengthened the argument 
against emancipation in this country. But behold ! Our freedmen have 
passed into citizenship in the face of prejudice and of every burden that 
they could be made to bear, without arsons, murders, riots, or such im- 
poverishment as seemed clearly impending upon them. The purity of 
the principle and the righteousness of the policy are vindicated now and 
forever by the fact that these people have passed from bondage into free- 
dom more safely than have any other people in the world's wide history. 

The Hutchinson Family sang Whittier's "Furnace Blast," at the close 
of Dr. Elder's oration, in such a manner and with such spirit that it eli- 
cited great applause. 

THE FUKNACE BLAST. 

We wait beneath the furnace-blast 

The pangs of transformation ; 
Not painlessly doth God recast 
And mould anew the nation. 
Hot burns the fire 
Where wrongs expire ; 
Nor spares the hand 
That from the land 
Uproots the ancient evil. 

The hand-breadth cloud the sages feared 
Its bloody rain is dropping; 



19 

The poison plant the fathers spared 
All else is overtopping. 
East, West, South, North, 
It curses the earth ; 
All justice dies, 
And fraud and lies 
Live only in its shadow. 

What gives the wheat-field blades of steel ? 

What points the rebel cannon ? 
What sets the roaring rabble's heel 
On the old star-sjtangled pennon ? 
What breaks the oath 
Of the men o' the South 
For the Union's life ? — 
Hark to the answer : Slavery ! 

Then waste no blows on lesser foes 

In strife unworthy freemen. 
God lifts to-day the vail, and shows 
The features of the demon ! 
O North and South, 
Its victims both, 
Can ye not cry, 
" Let slavery die !" 
And union find in freedom ? 

v 
What though the cast-out spirit tear 

The nation in his going ? 
We who have shared the guilt must share 
The pang of his o'erthrowing ! 
Whate'er the loss, 
Whate'er the cross, 
Shall they complain 
Of present pain 
Who trust in God's hereafter ? 

For who that leans on His right arm 

Was ever yet forsaken ? 
What righteous cause can suffer harm 
If He its part has taken ? 
Though wild and loud 
And dark the cloud 
Behind its folds 
His hand upholds 
The calm sky of to-morrow ! 



20 

Above the maddening cry for blood, 

Above the wild war-drumming, 
Let Freedom's voice be heard, with good 
The evil overcoming. 
Give prayer and purse 
To stay the Curse 
Whose wrong we share, 
Whose shame we bear, 
Whose end shall gladden Heaven ! 

In vain the bells of war shall ring 

Of triumphs and revenges, 
While still is spared the evil thing 
That severs and estranges. 
But blest the ear 
That yet shall hear 
The jubilant bell 
That rings the knell 
Of Slavery forever ! 

Then let the selfish lip be dumb, 

And hushed the breath of sighing ; 
Before the joy of peace must come 
The pains of purifying. 
God give us grace 
Each in his place 
To bear his lot, 
And, murmuring not, 
Endure, and wait, and labor ! 

The president then addressed the audience and said : 

Ladies and Gentlemen : The words of the Quaker poet, Whittier, to 
which you have just listened, could not be sung in the early winter of 
1861 in the army of the Potomac without causing military interference. 
I thank God those words can be sung to-day on every square mile of the 
Republic. [Applause.] 

I now have the honor of presenting to you a gentleman born in the 
State of Maryland, a victim of the slave system, who struck that system 
heavy blows, and who has won a name in the cause of liberty that history 
will record. I present to you Frederick Douglass. [Long-continued 
applause.] 

This fine compliment to the veteran orator of the colored race met a 
hearty response from the large assemblage. The speaker's comparison of 
the centennial anniversary which they were celebrating and the one to 



21 

come off next year in this city — as he showed that while the Exposition 
in 1876 is to celebrate nationality, this is to celebrate universal human- 
ity: his allusion to the distinguished men and women who had reached out 
a friendly hand to the negroes when they escaped from slavery, and his 
declaration of the negro's wants — protection to his rights and education ; 
his powerful description of the condition of the negro to-day, aided by his 
easy and graceful style of delivery, produced a wonderful impression. 
He said : 

My Friends and Fellow t -Citizens : I have very little to add to what 
has been already said, and well said, upon the various topics suggested by 
this occasion. In fact, I would gladly escape from saying anything, and 
leave the remaining time to be occupied by addresses from other speakers. 

When called upon to speak, however, I have always found it easier to 
comply than to refuse ; more easy to find words than to fit my words to 
the occasion ; and such is the case to-day. Centennial celebrations are 
new things in American experience. I never attended one before. I am, 
however, encouraged by the thought that when new things are attempted, 
a certain degree of awkwardness is expected and excused. Thus far, I 
believe, centennial celebrations have been monopolized by a few of our 
oldest religious denominations. In their hands they have been found to 
be not only very pleasant occasions, but very useful. They quicken zeal, 
strengthen faith, and stimulate exertion. So deeply impressed with the 
good effects of centennial celebrations are some of our colored brethren 
that they think now of having one annually, and, it may be, quarterly. 

Thus far, however, there is no formulated orthodox pattern for the 
speeches to be made on such occasions, and each man is therefore left to 
his own choice as to manner and matter. 

One thing it will be in order to say here, at the outset : I am in favor of 
centennial celebrations generally, and this Abolition Centennial particu- 
larly. It is well to mark and observe the beginnings of great and impor- 
tant events in the history of society and civilization. All such occasions 
can be made serviceable to human progress, welfare, and happiness. 

I am glad, too, that this great and growing city of yours, the pride of 
Pennsylvania, and perhaps the envy of some of its neighbors, is soon to 
be the scene of a grand and memorable Centennial Celebration ; one that 
will not only be metropolitan but national, and reflect glory upon our 
country and upon the world. There is inspiration in the very thought of 
such an assemblage. Here, on American soil, in this old city of the De- 
claration of Independence, will assemble the elite of all nations, kindreds, 



22 

tongues, and peoples. No argument is needed to prove that such a coming 
together will tend to liberality, peace, and brotherhood. Here, in this 
place, therefore, it is in order to bespeak the success of the grand Centen- 
nial which is to come after the one we are now holding. Our centennial 
celebration has attracted but little attention in comparison to that of next 
year ; and yet I venture to claim for ours a higher, broader, and more sa- 
cred character than that which is to come after it. The Centennial of 
Seventy-Six stands for patriotism ; ours stands for philanthropy. One 
stands for nationality ; the other stands for universal humanity. [Applause.] 
One stands for what is transient ; the other stands for what is permanent. 
Kingdoms, nationalities, principalities, powers, and republics, rise and fall ; 
appear and vanish ; but the great principles of liberty, justice, and humani- 
ty are unchangeable and eternal. [Renewed applause.] To participate in 
the celebration of a century of these principles is a sublime privilege. It 
is something of which a man may proudly tell his children, for it honor- 
ably associates his name with the grandest names and the noblest cause 
of modern history. 

I rejoice to see on this platform, Lucretia Mott [applause,] Abby Kelly 
Foster [applause,] and the men and women, some of whom reached out 
to me a friendly hand years ago when I made my escape from slavery 
and came here to Philadelphia, and then to New England. 

In listening to the discourse of our friend, Dr. Elder, this afternoon, I 
felt, as you did, that we had been fortunate in the sele6tion of our histori- 
cal orator. So far as the history of this society is concerned, he has swept 
the century and left but little for others to say. 

While I am a man of the present, and feel deeply interested in the 
works of to-day, I have no sympathy with those who despise and neglect 
the origin of the anti-slavery movement and other movements among 
men of a kindred character. All truth, whether moral, physical or histo- 
rical, is important, and may claim inspiration. 

We talk of the dead past ; but no part of the past is dead or indiffer- 
ent to me. I rejoice in the full-grown man of anti-slavery, but I do not 
forget the cradle, nor the terrible struggles which have intervened — the 
periods of weakness and strength, of infancy and maturity. 

I have somewhere seen a doubt expressed that there is any such thing 
as human progress. Some go so far as to say that this world is growing 
worse. To this view— this disheartening view, I may say — there is no 
more impressive contradiction than in the history of the anti-slavery 
cause. I know of no one period of the world's age for which I would be 
willing to exchange the present. There is no period in which the condi- 



23 

tion3 of existence were more easy and happy than now. Who amongst us 
wants to go back to those great clays of religious faith, when the Church 
tore men's flesh from their bones with iron pincers, and roasted them alive 
in fire and flame, because they entertained religious views different from 
those proclaimed from its pulpit ? 

There are those who would tear men to-day, if they could, for a differ- 
ence in religion. They call hard names and endeavor to excite prejudice ; 
but we must all rejoice that the day of old-fashioned religious persecution 
has now gone by. The day will come when persecution on account of 
color will go the same way. No one can well doubt this when he looks 
back over the history of the abolition movement, and observes and stu- 
dies its gradual rise to power in the world. Doctrines of human liberty 
which w T ere deemed by the wise and prudent, radical, grotesque, and fa- 
natical one hundred years ago, have come to be accepted as entirely 
rational, wise, and beautiful in our day. As Low y ell has it : 

"Humanity sweeps onward : 

Where to-day the martyr stands, 
To-morrow crouches Judas, 
With the money in his hands." 

I now hold in my hand a quaint and curious old volume, I will not say 
of forgotten lore, for I think it is probably the only one of its kind now in 
the United States. I have summoned it from the dust of nearly two hun- 
dred years to assist in this centennial celebration. 

This venerable book was published in London, in the year of grace 1GS0 : 
and is therefore nearly two hundred years old. It was presented to me 
by Mr. John Gibson, in remembrance of my visit to White Haven, Eng- 
land, nearly thirty years ago. I thought it would be interesting on this 
occasion for three reasons : First, because of its antiquity ; secondly, be- 
cause it very strikingly illustrates the gradual dawn of anti-slavery truth 
upon the world, and thirdly, because it is perhaps among the earliest of 
those efforts of the human mind wdiich have finally put an end to slavery 
in most of this Western world. 

The history of the book itself is significant and instructive. It was 
written by a pious missionary of the Church of England, who had resi- 
ded both in Virginia and in the West Indies, and of course, knew much 
about the practical workings of slavery, both upon the slave and the 
slave-master. In the production of this work of anti-slavery tendency he 
does not seem to have been moved altogether by a benevolent thought or 
purpose. His object was quite as much to shield the Church from oppro- 



24 

brium as to lift the down-trodden slave into manhood. In his introduc- 
tion he gives this among other exciting causes of his writing. He says : 
" A petty reformer pamphlet was put into my hands by an officious 
Friend or Quaker, upon the perusal whereof I met with this malicious 
but crafty iuvection levelled against the ministers : 

" Who made you ministers of the Gospel to the white people only, and 
not to the tawnys and blacks also ?" and he adds : " With many other 
of the like insolent queries." This proves that even at this early day 
the Quakers were in advance of their neighbors, and that they knew full 
well how to reprove the heartless injustice, partiality, and hypocrisy of 
the Church. 

This book of the missionary, Morgan Godwin, designed to shield religion 
from the just reproaches of the friends of the slave, while it abounded 
in many excellent reflections, did not take very high ground. It was not 
a direct and conscious attack upon slavery. The idea that slavery in itself 
was wrong nowhere gets itself expressed in these pages. Mr. Godwin simply 
endeavored to prove that it was not a sin in the sight of God to baptize a negro 
and give him religious instruction ; and to show that these were not preju- 
dicial to the right of the masters. But low as was this ground it was quite 
radical doctrine two hundred years ago. He asked neither freedom, cit- 
izenship, suffrage, nor equality for the negro. All he wanted was the 
right to put a little religious water upon him, and to save the poor fellow's 
soul. 

He disposed of the black man in a very simple manner. He gave his 
body to the white man and his soul to the Lord. The right of the earth- 
ly master was as good to his part of the property as the right of the heav- 
enly to his. But the black man himself had no right. When he looked 
for his body, that belonged to his master, and when he looked for his soul, 
that belonged to the Church ; and being unable to divide himself further, 
he did not have anything left for himself, and was, as we sometimes say in 
slang phrase, nowhere. From the elevated moral plane we now stand up- 
on, it appears almost incredible that the negro's right to baptism and re- 
ligious instruction was ever denied and resisted ; but such is the fact. We 
must remember that the gray light of morning is not the mid-day sun in 
its splendor, and that the age of Morgan Godwin was not the age of 
William L. Garrison, Gerrit Smith and Wendell Phillips. 

Mr. Douglass gave some of the grounds of opposition to the baptism of 
the negro. It tended to increase his dignity and importance. It made 
him a Christian, and thus took him out of the category of heathenism 
from which the Bible permitted Christians to buy and hold slaves. It 



25 

was alleged that a slave was not a fit subject for baptism. He was not a 
free moral agent — had no will of his own, and could not choose his own 
course in life. On any consistent theory of slavery the baptism of the 
negro was wrong and impolitic, and had a direct tendency to impair the 
value of the slave to his earthly master, and this was the view taken of 
the measure by the masters, and many and bloody have been the lashes laid 
on the backs of negroes for allowing themselves to be baptized 

But something more than a glance at the past is due from us on this 
occasion. It is a glorious fact that slavery is abolished and the negro 
is enfranchised. A hundred years of labor have been rewarded by vast and 
wonderful progress- But he is an unwise reformer and unwise patriot who 
now considers his whole duty clone and his work for freedom and country 
completed. Xo man of anti-slavery instincts can now look out upon the 
moral and political situation of this country without seeing danger to the 
results obtained by the immense labor and suffering of long years of agi- 
tation and of war and bloodshed. Every effort should now be made to 
save the results of this stupendous moral and physical contest- 

It is said by some : " We have done enough for the negro." Yes, you 
have done a great deal for the negro, and, for one, I am deeply sensible 
of it, and grateful for it. But after all, what have you done? We were 
slaves — and you have made us free — and given us the ballot. But the 
world has never seen any people turned loose to such destitution as were 
the four million slaves of the South. The old roof was pulled down over 
their heads before they could make for themselves a shelter. They were 
free! free to huuger; free to the winds and rains of heaven ; free to the 
pitiless wrath of enraged masters, who, since they could no longer control 
them, were willing to see them starve. They were free, without roofs to 
cover them, or bread to eat, or land to cultivate, and as a consequence died 
in such numbers as to awaken the hope of their enemies that they would 
soon disappear. We gave them freedom and famine at the same time. 
The marvel is that they still live. What the negro wants is, first, protec- 
tion to the rights already conceded by law, and, secondly, education. 
Talk of having done enough for these people after two hundred years of 
enforced ignorance and stripes is absurd, cruel, and heartless. 

Great was the statesmanship that gave the black man the ballot, but 
greater still will be the statesmanship that shall give him ample protection 
in exercising that sacred right, and education, and the knowledge to use 
his suffrage in such a manner as to preserve his own liberty and the high- 
est welfare of the Government of this Republic. To-day, iu the South, 
the school-house is burned. To-day, in Tennessee, Lucy Haydon is called 



26 

from an inner room at midnight and shot down because she teaches col- 
ored children to read. To-day, in New Orleans and in Louisiana, and in 
parts of Alabama, the black man scarcely dares to deposit the votes which 
you gave him a right to deposit for fear of his life. We want your voices 
again ; we want disinterested laborers as of old ; we want Abby Kellys 
rising up in the wake of the Abby Kellys of other days ; we want the 
Anna Dickinsons with a moral purpose to stir this country anew in be- 
half of humanity ; we want to carry the standard, as the old Garrisonians 
carried it in 1840, outside of the Republican party, and outside of the 
Democratic party; we want this society to celebrate its second centennial, 
if need be. 

Some of my friends in England used to send me money to help me 
publish my paper, and when slavery was abolished I was glad to send 
them word : '• I release you now, my friends, from sending me any more 
assistance, either for my paper or for the beuefit of fugitive slaves." They 
wrote back : " Douglass, we do not want to be released ; We want you to 
go on ; we want to help you." I say that we want this same spirit to take 
the field now in behalf of this race. We need you, my friends, almost as 
much as ever. 

But I am here talking too long, and I will not detain you longer. I see 
here my friend and your friend — and you know he is here — Charles C. 
Burleigh [applause] ; my friend Robert Purves [applause] ; and other 
friends upon whom you can call. I know you want to hear as many 
voices as you can during the hour, and I thank you for the attention with 
which you have listened to my remarks. 

Upon concluding, Mr. Douglass was the recipient of rounds of applause. 



REMARKS BY LUCRETIA MOTT. 

The chairman (Vice-President Wilson) then said: 

On an occasion like this our hearts are full of tender memories. We 
are grateful to those whose voices, labors, and pens have advanced our 
cause. We are grateful to the private soldier who laid down his life in 
the storm of battle for the cause of the black man. We are grateful to 
the memory of Abraham Lincoln [applause], and we should not forget 
that this day is the tenth anniversary of his assassination. And among 
those to whom we should be grateful, our hearts should go out in gratitude 
to that noble class of American women who during the last forty years 
have worked and spoken for the cause. [Applause.] I propose now to 



27 

present to you one of the most venerable and noble of the American 
women, whose voice for forty years has been heard and tenderly touched 
many noble hearts. Age has dimmed her eye and weakened her voice, 
but her heart, like the heart of a wise man and a wise woman, is yet young. 
I present to you Lucretia Mott. 

[This announcement was greeted with renewed manifestations of wel- 
come.] 

Lucretia Mott, upon coming forward, said : 

I came here without the least expectation of saying a word, understand- 
ing the meeting to be at the call of the Society for Promoting the Aboli- 
tion of Slavery, as organizad long before the Anti-Slavery Society, headed 
by William Lloyd Garrison. In this, the first society, women were not 
expected to take part. I therefore, should feel very much out of place 
were there not a union at this time of both societies. Then again, owing 
to a severe cold, my hoarseness is such that I cannot be heard probably 
many feet from me ; but my interest in this cause makes me willing, at 
the suggestion of your chairman, to occupy a few moments 

The speaker, after expressing the hope that what had been said would 
have the effect to stimulate her hearers to greater zeal in the support of 
schools for the education of people of color, and in the many similar direc- 
tions in which they had been engaged, proceeded to correct an erroneous 
statement that Elizabeth Heyriek was a member of the Society of Friends. 

Referring to what had been said coucerning the gratitude of the negro, 
she gave some instances from her personal experience, and remarked that 
much yet remained to be done in order to put a stop to outrages upon the 
colored people such as were still perpetrated iu the South. She referred 
to the moral influence of the anti-slavery sentiments in bringing about the 
emancipation of the colored race. 

The next exercise was the rendition by the Hutchinson Family of the 

verses beginning : 

" It is coming up the steep of time, 

And this whole world is growing brighter." 



REMARKS OF CHARLES C BURLEIGH. 

The chairman then introduced the next speaker in these words : " I 
now present Charles C. Burleigh, who gave youth, talent, and courage to 
the cause." 

Mr. Burleigh came forward and said : 

I see that this platform is draped with the stars and stripes of the 



23 

Union, and in that I see one signal token of the change that has been 
wrought in this country by the proclamation of anti-slavery truth ; for 
now there is nothing in that emblem to cause an anti-slavery meeting to 
shrink from it. The time was when this flag floated over four millions of 
slaves and, under it, the military power of the nation stood pledged to 
keep those slaves in bondage. To-day the military power of the nation 
stands pledged to defend the right of the emancipated slave not only to be 
a man but to be a co-sovereign of the Republic, and to share with the 
proudest of his white brethren iD the exercise of all the rights which belong 
to the citizen of this great Republic. 

We are celebrating the one-hundredth anniversary of a society, but for 
whose existence, with that of similar organizations, it would have been 
impossible for this natiou, without exposing itself to taunts and reproaches, 
to celebrate the centennial anniversary of its freedom in the presence of 
the nations of the earth. We can now stand as a free people in the pres- 
ence of other nations, and will not hear the reproach that over this land a 
bastard Freedom waves her fustian flag in mockery ove^r slaves. Some- 
thing therefore has been achieved by this society, not merely for the rais- 
ing up of the chattel to the condition of a man, and the man to the con- 
dition of a co-sovereign, but for the entire nation and for the progress of 
humanity. 

The speaker went on to argue that in all this the might of the truth, 
which was the agency whereby the victory was achieved, was plainly 
visible. This truth had been mighty, not only in enlisting men under the 
banner of an unpopular cause, and strengthening them to cast behind ease 
and interest, and honor and reputation, and stand in the fore-front of the 
battle against outrage and persecution, but in constraining even the 
enemies of the cause to do its service, and its adversaries to accomplish its 
work. In rebelling against the Government, and making slavery the 
corner stone of the empire, the slave power not only forced upon the 
nation the necessity of crushing rebellion in order to save itself, but it 
robbed itself of the shield behind which it had sheltered through all the 
preceding years. It could no longer plead its constitutional or legal 
rights after it had risen in rebellion against the very authority under 
which it claimed to exercise its guarantees of protection. The speaker 
argued in proof of his position that the truth proclaimed by the anti-sla- 
very champions of the country had not only rallied around it the friends 
of justice and humanity, but had converted their enemies into instruments 
for achieving its own victories. 



29 



REMARKS OF ROBERT PURVIS, Esq. 

Mr. Purvis, referring to the chairman's notice that the meeting would 
adjourn to re assemble at Bethel church in the evening, said it was doubt- 
ful whether Vice-President Wilson would be present then, and added : 
" I wish to say, yielding to the impulse of the instant, and as the certain 
representative of millions in the country, that we are more indebted to the 
able chairman and to his distinguished colleague who now enjoys 
his reward in Heaven, than to any men in the national councils for all 
that now enables the colored race to feel that they have a country to love, 
and a flag which they can conscientiously honor and defend." 

The remarks were received with applause. Bishop Campbell pronounced 
the benediction and the meeting adjourned to Bethel church at 7^ o'clock. 



THE EVENING EXERCISES. 



The Centennial celebration was continued according to adjournment, at 
Bethel Methodist Episcopal Church, Sixth above Lombard. A large au- 
dience were gathered before the hour. There were on the platform, Vice 
President Wilson, Frederick Douglas, Bishop Campbell, C. C. Burleigh, 
Mrs. F. E. W. Harper, Rev. G. H. Ball, of New York, Rev. J. W. Dun- 
gee of Richmond, Va, Prof. J. M. Langston, John Oliver of Richmond, 
Va, and others. Bishop Campbell, presiding, desired Rev. Dr Ball to ask 
a blessing. The Hutchinson Family sang. A letter from Bishop D. A. 
Payne was read, encouraging the Society not to desist from their effort* 
until Slavery no longer existed anywhere. Mrs. F. E. W. Harper was 
introduced. She said : 

The great problem to be solved by the American people, if I under- 
stand it, is this — whether or not there is strength enough in democracy, 
virtue enough in our civilization, and power enough in our religion to have 
mercy and deal justly with four millions of people but lately translated 



30 

from the old oligarchy of slavery to the new commonwealth of freedom : 
and upon the right solution of this question depends in a large measure 
the future strength, progress, and durability of our nation. The most im- 
portant question before us colored people is not simply what the Demo- 
cratic party may do against us or the Republican party do for us ; but 
what are we going to do for ourselves ? "What shall we do towards develop- 
ing our character, adding our quota to the civilization and strength of the 
country, diversifying our industry, and practicing those lordly virtues that 
conquer success, and turn the world's dread laugh into admiring recogni- 
tion ? The white race have yet work to do in making practical the politi- 
cal axiom of equal rights, and the Christian idea of human brotherhood ; 
but while I lift mine eyes to the future I would not ungratefully ignore 
the past. One hundred years ago and Africa was the privileged hunting- 
ground of Europe and America, and the flag of different nations hung a 
sign of death on the coasts of Congo and Guinea, and for years unbroken 
silence had hung around the horrors of the African slave trade. Since 
then Great Britain and other nations have wiped the bloody traffic from 
their hands, and shaken the gory merchandise from their fingers, and the 
brand of piracy has been placed upon the African slave trade. Less than 
fifty years ago mob violence belched out its wrath against the men who 
dared to arraign the slaveholder before the bar of conscience and Christ- 
endom. Instead of golden showers upon his head, he who garrisoned the 
front had a halter around his neck. Since, if I may borrow the idea, the 
nation has caught the old inspiration from his lips and written it in the 
new organic world. Less than twenty-five years ago slavery clasped hands 
with King Cotton, and said slavery fights and cotton conquers for Ameri- 
can slavery. Since then slavery is dead, the colored man has exchanged 
the fetters on his wrist for the ballot in his hand. Freedom is king and 
Cotton a subject. 

It may not seem to be a gracious thing to mingle complaint in a season 
of general rejoicing. It may appear like the ancient Egyptians seating 
a corpse at their festal board to avenge the Americans for their short- 
comings when so much has been accomplished. And yet with all the 
victories and triumphs which freedom and justice have won in this 
country, I do not believe there is another civilized nation uuder Heaven 
where there are half so many people who have been brutally and 
shamefully murdered, with or without impunity, as in this republic within 
the last ten years. And who cares? Where is the public opinion that 
has scorched with red-hot indignation the cowardly murderers of Vicks- 
burgh and Louisiana ? Sheridan lifts up the vail from Southern society, 



31 

and behind it is the smell of blood, and our bones scattered at the grave's 
mouth ; murdered people ; a White League with its " covenant of death 
and agreement with hell." And who cares? What city pauses one hour 
to drop a pitying tear over these mangled corpses, or has forged against the 
perpetrator one thunderbolt of furious protest ? But let there be a sup- 
posed or real invasion of Southern rights by our soldiers, and our great 
commercial emporium will rally its forces from the old man in his classic 
shades, to clasp hands with " Dead Rabbits" and " Plug-uglies" in protesting 
against military interference. What we need to-day in the onward march 
of humanity is a public sentiment in favor of common justice and simple 
mercy. We have a civilization which has produced grand and magnifi- 
cent results, diffused knowledge, overthrown slavery, made constant con- 
quests over nature, and built up a wonderful material prosperity. But 
two things are wanting in American civilization — a keener and deeper, 
broader and tenderer sense of justice — a sense of humanity, which shall 
crystalize into the life of the nation the sentiment that justice, simple 
justice, is the right, not simply of the strong and powerful, but of the 
weakest and feeblest of all God's children ; a deeper and broader human- 
itv, which will teach men to look upon their feeble brethren not as vermin 
to be crushed out, or beasts of burden to be bridled and bitted, but as the 
children of the living God ; of that God whom we may earnestly hope is 
in perfect wisdom and in perfect love working for the best good of all. 
Ethnologists may differ about the origin of the human race. Huxley may 
search for it in protoplasms, and Darwin send for the missing links, but 
there is one thing of which we may rest assured ; that we all come 
from the living God and that He is the common Father. The nation 
that has no reverence for man is also lacking in reverence for God and 
needs to be instructed. As fellow-citizens, leaving out all humanitarian 
views — as a mere matter of political economy it is better to have the 
colored race a living force animated and strengthened by self-reliance and 
self-respect, than a stagnant mass, degraded and self-condemned. Instead 
of the North relaxing its efforts to diffuse education in the South, it be- 
hooves us for our national life, to throw into the South all the healthful 
reconstructing influences we can command. Our work in this country is 
grandly constructive. Some races have come into this world and over- 
thrown and destroyed. But if it is glory to destroy, it is happiness to 
save ; and Oh ! what a noble work there is before our nation ! Where is 
there a young man who would consent to lead an aimless life when there 
are such glorious opportunities before him ? Before our young men is 
another battle — not a battle of flashing swords and clashing steel — but a 



32 

moral warfare, a battle against ignorance, poverty, and low social condi- 
tion. In physical warfare the keenest swords may be blunted and the 
loudest batteries hushed ; but in the great conflict of moral and spiritual 
progress your weapons shall be brighter for their service and better for 
their use. In fighting truly and nobly for others you win the victory for 
yourselves. 

Give power and significance to your own life, and in the great work of 
upbuilding there is room for woman's work and woman's heart. Oh, 
that our hearts were alive and our vision quickened, to see the grandeur 
of the work that lies before. We have some culture among us, but I 
think our culture lacks enthusiasm. We need a deep earnestness and a 
lofty unselfishness to round out our lives. It is the inner life that de- 
velops the outer, and if we are in earnest the precious things lie all 
around our feet, and we need not waste our strength in striving after the 
dim and unattainable. Woman, in your golden youth ; mother, binding 
around your heart all the precious ties of life, — let no magnificence of cul- 
ture, or amplitude of fortune, or refinement of sensibilities, repel you 
from helping the weaker and less favored. If you have ampler gifts, hold 
them as larger opportunities with which you can benefit others. Oh, it is 
better to feel that the weaker and feebler our race the closer we will cling 
to them than it is to isolate ourselves from them in selfish, or careless 
unconcern, saying there is a lion without. Inviting you to this work I do 
not promise you fair sailing and unclouded skies. You may meet with 
coolness where you expect sympathy; disappointment where you feel 
sure of success ; isolation and loneliness instead of heart-support and co- 
operation. But if your lives are based and built upon these divine certi- 
tudes, which are the only enduring strength of humanity, then whatever 
defeat and discomfiture may overshadow your plans or frustrate your 
schemes, for a life that is iu harmony with God and sympathy for man 
there is no such word as fail. And in conclusion, permit me to say, let 
no misfortunes crush you ; no hostility of enemies or failure of friends 
discourage you. Apparent failure may hold in its rough shell the germs 
of a success that will blossom in time, and bear fruit throughout eternity. 
What seeemed to be a failure around the Cross of Calvary and in the gar- 
den, has been the grandest recorded success. 

Elizur Wright was then introduced. He said : — 

I have noticed that Elizur Wright, junior, has been announced as one 
of the speakers on this occasion. No such person is now in existence, and 
there has not been in twenty years. I remember there was one, and how, 
with his young wife and child, he came to this city in 1803 to attend the 



33 

formation of a new anti-slavery society, a sort of junior to the one whose 
birth is to-day celebrated. He then related the occurrence of a grand 
dinner in this city, at which his wife felt honored at being led to the table 
by a .sea captain who was colored. 

There is in all society an upper and a lower stratum. But they are not 
regulated by color or nationality. The distinction belongs to character 
and culture. 

Mr. Wright then adverted to the Civil-Rights Bill, which he said would 
meet no trouble in the South. Two years ago he took a journey through 
the South, and the best car on a train on which he rode Mas half filled 
with negroes — well-dressed, fine-appearing — and the white people who 
sat in the car did not feel at all disgraced. It is true there are, in low 
society, cases of outrage, but they are the exception. The civil-rights 
bill will go into effect. 

After urging the duty of the coming generation to work for the eleva- 
tion and complete freedom of the African race, Mr. Wright read two 
paragraphs describing a discussion in Green-street Church, Boston, in 
L833, between a Mr. Findlay and the speaker, the three questions of which 
were : Whether the colonization of the negroes was not beneficial to the 
African-;? Whether it does not tend to encourage slavery? and whether 
the only hope for the abolition of slavery does not lie in propagating the 
doctrine of immediate emancipation ? 

At the conclusion of Mr. Wright's remarks, Mr. Purvis said : " that in 
this very Bethel church in 1817, the iirst protest was madeagain-r the colo- 
nization scheme, and his honored father-in-law presided on that occasion." 

Professor John M. Langston was introduced. He commenced by re- 
marking that he could hardly understand why he should have been hon- 
ored by au invitation to attend so grand a commemoration. He had no 
merits and had performed no work that justified him in intruding upon 
their patience. And yet he would not represent the class whose represen- 
tative he was unless, in their name, he testified to the inestimable debt 
hat is owed by them and will be owed by their posterity — by 
the whole population of the Union, regardless of* race, of learning, of con- 
dition ; by the population of the world, aunually holding its way more in 
accordance with the principles of freed mi, of general education and popu- 
lar government and so with more and higher success, — the great debt of 
gratitude that is owed by all now living in this country and by many in 
other lands, and that will be due from men every year, to the Pennsyl- 
vania Abolition Society for their staunch efforts in securing universal 
freedom. (Applause). 
3 



34 

The history of the Association, owing to its objects and achievements, 
sweep in an interest that is not confined to any class : an interest that is 
not confined to any people, and whose scope and consequences cannot be 
foretold by human inspiration. It affects the emancipation of a whole 
race ; and in that it touches the progress and character of all who are 
brought in contact with that race, the forms of government over the world 
aud the world's progress in all departments. There was a recent time in 
American history when no man in all its length and breadth, could read 
the Declaration of Independence and say that he possessed all of his civil 
and political liberties. Garrison could not speak in New Orleans, nor 
could the silver-tongued Phillips address an audience south of Mason and 
Dixon's line. Nor was it expedient for John C. Calhoun to address his 
arguments in Independence Hall, or for Davis and Yulee and Mason to 
propound theirs in Faneuil Hall. Speech was itself in thrall, and bound 
to the section in which it found voice. When Garrison and Phillips had 
been invited to speak in Cincinnati, they were counseled by their friends 
not to do so. There was clanger that the mobs of Covington and Cincin- 
nati would assassinate them publicly ; and it is notorious that the opposing 
arguments that reached Washington from the North and from the South, 
advanced no further in either direction. This impugned and belied the 
very freedom declared in the Declaration and Constitution ; and made 
both the mockery of Europe. The contradiction is reconciled ; the taunt 
is silenced ; speech is legally free and protected over all the Union, and the 
Pennsylvania Abolition Society have done more than any other agency — 
more than all other agencies combined 'to vitalize the Constitution and 
give being to the Declaration. This society fougbt for the glowing asser- 
tion of all the centuries, that mankind are born free and equal and are 
endowed with inalienable right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happi- 
ness. They kept the contrast between the declaration and its practice in 
a clear light. They repeated the assertion and reasserted it. They argued 
the justice with the very facts and reasons that had been presented to the 
Congress by whom the Declaration was framed. Undisturbed by ridicule, 
unchecked by hostility, undaunted by persecution, they kept the law in 
the van of the fight; they sustained it by reserves of humane reason ; by 
appeals to national strength and welfare, and growth, and influence, and 
wealth; they disseminated the truth in churches, at the polls, in lyceums, by 
the press ; they were unanswerable because their claim was founded in equity, 
and recognized in religion, and had ineradicable place in the great muniment 
of national being. They appealed to the individual conscience as well as 
to pride, patriotism, piety and interest, and they won, and now celebrate a 



OO 



victory immeasurably greater than that of Yorktown or Waterloo or 
Marathon. Those were the victories of nation over nation, or at the ut- 
most of a principle of limited application. We celebrate the successful 
battle of the grandest principle in human organization ; that is confined 
to no raca, limited to no country, cramped by no restriction, but is as 
broad as the world, as applicable as humanity itself and as enduring as 
time. The sentiment which elected Abraham Lincoln was contained in 
an address delivered before the Pennsylvania Abolition Society by Benja- 
min Rush, one of its earliest and most honored members. It was : " Free- 
dom and Slavery cannot long exist together ! " (Applause). 

Ladies and Gentlemen of the Abolition Society ! Those who see the 
American citizens of African descent one hundred years hence, will be 
proud of them, and convinced that the great century struggle that won 
their enfranchisement was worth infinitely more than it cost. We are 
now leaving politics. We have gained through them the rights and op- 
portunities they conferred, that could be secured in no other way. We 
are devoting ourselves to learning and industry ; the attainment of wealth 
and manufacture of character. We shall never leave our home. There 
are but two facts to be recognized. We are here. The White race are 
here. Both share the same rights ; make and obey the same laws ; strug- 
gle for progress under the same conditions. The logical conclusion of 
our birthright and of our proclaimed and perfected equality before the 
law is that we shall remain, and remaining strive with equal advantages 
with our white fellow-citizens for our own good and the nation's welfare. 

Prof. Langston's speech was received with great applause. 

Abby Kelley Foster said that she did not intend to make a speech, 
for she could not. She merely wished to congratulate the Society on its 
grand work in lifting up the oppressed and down-trodden. The Ameri- 
can Abolition Society and its hundreds of branches died when they had 
seen the political disabilities of the colored race removed, and the Penn- 
sylvania Society is the only one now existing. 

Henry Wilson, Vice President of the United States, was 
introduced. One word he said of many expressed duriug the session met 
his most hearty response. It was that which called the people to prepare 
to sustain the government of which they are now a part. For more than 
two years there has been much said about public men being a commodity. 
They are criticised for every act and the vilest motives are assigned for 
all they do or refuse to do. Now for twenty years at least, the public 
men of this country have been far ahead of the average of those whom 



36 

they represent ; and they are so still. The slave power in this country 
did not go down because the popular demand had changed. When the 
rebellion broke out, a great majority of the people of the country were 
not anti-slavery in their feelings and were very far from being abolition- 
ists. There were however among them those who enlightened, formed and 
directed sentiment. 

The review of only a few months shows by the losses how many great 
men have been taken from our ranks. Within the last thirty months 
William H. Seward, who rendered incalculable service in behalf of 
emancipation, has been taken away. Chief Justice Chase, who rendered 
great and grand services notwithstanding some mistakes, has gone too. 
Horace Greeley, whose services to the cause through his influential journal 
cannot be overestimated, has gone. Gone too is Charles Sumner, who 
defended the same cause with unsurpassed eloquence ; and gone because 
he defended it. Gerritt Smith, associated with the struggle from its birth 
and untiring and resolute in sheltering it, has gone. And so has Abra- 
ham Lincoln, in whom all purpose and all desire concentrated for a 
supreme effort, and through whom they won their whole demand. And 
Lincoln and Sumner and Seward paid with their lives for their advocacy. 

Let us now, succeeding these pioneers, emulate their conduct and dis- 
charge our different duties as resolutely and wisely and perseveringly. 
Let us step to the very verge to raise, improve and elevate the colored 
men of America, whether they are in the North or the South. This is 
our duty, and is doubly urgent owing to what our predecessors and com- 
panions have won. We start with the determination that the colored 
race shall have all and the same rights and privileges that the white 
enjoy. We start with the determination that the millions of whites 
who were kept in ignorance and poverty and subjection equal to slavery, 
from the Delaware to the Rio Grande, because the colored were slaves, 
shall be educated and enfranchised. Slavery is dead, but its consequences 
are not dead, and must ba wholly vanquished. We are to conquer these 
as we did their seed. We must struggle for education. We must create 
free schools for white and black in all of the South and everywhere. 
True policy requires us to assist in rebuilding the broken industries of the 
South. In a purely Christian spirit we must maintain that equal rights 
belong to all American citizens, and that any opposition is as treasonable 
to republican government as advocating a monarchy. We must animate, 
viraliz3 and enforce all that we have added to the Constitution, and give 
it efficacy as extensive as that. We must change wrong opinions. We 
must concede what can be conceded, generously. We must hold to and 



37 

defend the essentials with a firmness that will not surrender evea the 
shadow of right and justice. 

Vice President Wilson's speech was received with frequent applause 
and applause followed it 

Frederick Douglass succeeded Mr. Wilson. He paid a glowing eulogy 
to Abraham Lincoln and divided it with Henry Wilson. He also touched 
briefly upon the issues of the recent elections in Connecticut and New 
Hampshire, as they concerned the social equality of the races. His con- 
clusion was that as the negro procured freedom from political necessity. 
so he must procure education for social necessity. He was followed 
by Robert Purves in a few extemporaneous remarks that criticised the 
republican party for having neglected to keep the promL-es male in 1872 
and only offered a substitute that is inefficient and worthless. The Hut- 
chinson Family sang, and the long exercises of the evening, patiently 
followed by a great assemblage who testified their interest by their atten- 
tion and their appreciation by their applause, were ended with the bene- 
diction. 

Another celebration speedily follows this. Its lights are seen, its music 
is heard, its approach is near. It will collect all the races of all the 
States ; all the records, and attainments and hopes of all Americans, in 
its great embrace. It will draw contributions and representatives and 
spectators from every nation on earth ; and will go out in its effects as 
far, and for all time to commend the uses of free government. That in- 
cludes the celebration of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society as a constit- 
uent, And no constituent is more mighty. It brought back the admin- 
istration of the nation to harmony with the national constitution. It 
made the constitution opeiative. It accomplished the freedom that is 
necessary for American being and doing: it unlocked the door to finer 
humanities and greater progress for all everywhere. It turned out and 
locked out the barbarism of slavery from the civilization of the centurv 
and of the world. The celebration whose record is closed was not marred 
by the abuse of the old slave-holders nor by partizan feeling. There 
were no untimely or inappropriate demands made. The kindest feelings 
of a great jubilee reigned supreme and penetrated the whole; and the oc- 
casion was employed to impress the need of education, of virtue, of indus- 
try, of all the virtues that make a nation's greatness and retain it. It 
was in spi.it, in character and in every pxrticular as great and bril- 
liant a contribution as any the Centennial will hold, and there can be no 
display than that will not radiate new light from the colors of this anni- 
versary. 



CONCLUSION. 

Such in its motives; such in its membership; such in its pacific and 
lawful and philanthropic labors; such in its hop°s and failures, in its 
counsels and trials, was the Abolition Society of the United States. It 
was organized when the political independence of the nation had just been 
won, and all men rejoiced in political freedom. It was organized with 
the co-operation of Franklin, and the countenance of his most eminent co- 
temporaries. It formulated an eternal truth that had been incorporated 
in the immortal declaration, that " All men are born free and equal, and 
endowed with inalienable rights." It had European countenance, and 
through all its century of alternating hope and depression, and in the very 
instant of appareut final defeat, it had the consciences of mankind sub- 
scribing its truth and jus-tice. 

The bloodshed of an unp-ovoked and wanton civil war preceded its final 
success, and its victory was hallowed bythe murder of that martyr President, 
whose great Proclamation broke every shackle and freed every slave. 
The victory surged forward beyond any dream of the most visionary at 
the beginning. The victims of more than a century of slavery, telling 
their numbers by millions, were not only freed but enfranchised. Their 
gallant conduct in the field through the war; their self-sacnficing and con- 
stant support in civil life; the order, the industry, the charity, the toler- 
ance they showed in all situations, and their zeal for learning and active 
lab >rs, commanded the great Constitutional Amendment, by which the 
freedmen were made citizens, aud invested with all the rights and all the 
responsibilities of their white fellow-citizens. The Centennial of the 
Abolition Society thus celebrated the abolition of the slave* ; the proof 
that they deserved for personal and patriotic merit what they received 
through political justice, invoked by the rebellion of their former masters. 
And it was brightened by the great efforts that have been and are being 
made by these new citizens in every State, to educate themselves and their 
children, to maintain schools, to erect churches; to acquire property, and 
command through desert, the equal esteem of all classes, and the same 
social and political standing, irrespective of color, that the African race 
have in France. 

The Centennial was made more august by similar consequences, indi- 
rectly won through its labors, in other lands. At the very instant when, 
siart : ug in and from the great attempt of this society here, slavery was 
outlawed in the Union ; Russia put an end to serfdom in her lands ; and 
Spain moderated her rigor in Porto Rico ; and white and black fought to- 



39 

gether for independence in Cuba ; and Brazil declared a system of gradual 
emancipation, and human bondage over all the world was limited to a few 
countries, with evidence of its early and total suppression. The light and 
warmth that irradiated the celebration, perfect in tone and pervasive and 
unqualified as they were, from all parts of the Union, were augmented 
from all parts of the world; and it was possible to apprehend the highest 
elevation of citizens of African descent in the United States, lately slaves, 
concurreotly with the spread of emancipation to the African and other 
races, in every portion of the world, and the absolute reign of freedom for 
the first time in the world's history. 

Such, so brilliant and so great in its history and direct and consequen- 
tial attainments was the Abolition Society. It contained as pure, and in- 
telligent, and earnest, and pious souls as any society ever had. It won a 
great fight against the greatest odds. It transmitted its uses to other 
lands, and saw them succeeding. And it wisely employed the instant of 
victory, to plan new and nobler labors for the elevation of those to whom 
it gave freedom. This is the work devolved upon the shoulders of these 
members who live, and she children of members who have their reward. 
The political power of the Union, its theory of government, and the ne- 
ities of every State, require a general assistance for this labor, that has 
been partly given. The next Centennial will be national and unopposed, 
and hearty— when the descendants of the late slaves are no longer freed- 
men— but fully clothed with every attribute of manhood, and invested 
with all the rights and considerations of citizenship. 



40 



SCHOOLS AT THE FOLLOWING PLACES. 

Whilst the Society has felt the deepest interest in the educational work, 
means have not been so abundant as to enable them to respond to the 
pressing claims of Schools and Colleges, further than now and then a case. 
Aid, however, has been extended to some extent to the following schools 
and colleges embraced in the subjoined list. 



Waterford, Va. 
Janesville, N. C. 
Mount Pisgah, Md. 
Woodlawn, Va. 
St. Mary's, Pa. 
Rikersville, S. C. 
Gum Springs, Va. 
Gainsville, S. C. 
Bidwell, " 
Lenairs, " 

Falls Church, Va. 
Waldo, " 

Manassas, " 

Lively Oak, " 
Fairfield, " 

Goldsboro', N. C. 
Beaufort, S. C. 
Heathsville, Va. 
Sumpter, S. C. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 
Laurel Factory, Md. 
Blackville, S. C. 
Frogmore, " 
St. Helena, " 
Midway, " 
Camden, N. J. 
Mount Pleasant, S. C 
Columbia, Ga. 
Chambersburg, Pa. 
Richmond, Va. 
Leesburg, " 



Clark's Chapel, Ga. 

Alexandria, Va. 

Centreville, " 

Warren, " 

Sharpsburg, Md. 

Painter's Post, Va. 

Brentsville, " 

Ship's Island, Miss. 

Grand View, Va. 

Oberlin, Ohio. 

Broad Mountain, Va. 

Milford, Del. 

Barnwell, S. C. 

Howard University, D. C. 

Wilberforce " Ohio. 

Hampton Institute, Va. 

Albany " Ohio. 

Maryville, " Tenn. 

Bridgewater Orphans' School, Pa. 

Maylandville " " " 

Colored Orphans' Home, D. C. 

Orphan Home, S. C. 

Moral Reform Home, N. J. 

Brown St. Public School, Pa. 

Bethany " " " 

Race St. Friends' Freedmen's Association, Pa. 

Arch " " " " 

C. S. Schaeffer's Mission, Va. 

Penna. Freedmen's Ass'n, Pa. 

Several Students at Lincoln University. 



41 



AN ACT 

TO INCORPORATE A SOCIETY, 



BY THE NAME OF 



THE PENNSYLVANIA SOCIETY 



Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and for the Relief of Free Negroes 
unlawfully held in bondage, and for improving the 

condition of the African Race. 



Section 1. Whereas, a voluntary Society has for some years subsisted 
in this State, by the name and title of " The Pennsylvania Society for 
Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and the Relief of Free Negroes un- 
lawfully held in Bondage,'' which has evidently co-operated with the views 
of the Legislature, expressed in the act of the General Assembly of this 
Commonwealth, passed the first day of March, in the year of our Lord, 
one thousand seven hundred and eighty, entitled " An Act for the gradual 
abolition of slavery," and a supplement thereto, passed the twenty-ninth 
day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty-eight, entitled " An Act to explain and amend an act, entitled an 
act for the gradual abolition of slavery ;" 

And whereas, this said Society have lately extended their plan so far 
as to comprehend within their intentions the improving the condition as 
well of those negroes who now are, or hereafter shall become free, by the 
operation of the said acts, or otherwise, and their posterity ; and have, by 
their petition to this House, prayed to be created and erected into a body 
politic and corporate, for the purpose of increasing their ability to be 
useful in the several matters aforesaid. 



42 

■ 

Section 2. Be it therefore enacted, and it is hereby enacted, by represent- 
atives of the freemen of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in General As- 
sembly met, and by the authority of the same, That the present members of 
the said Society, viz. 

Dr. Benjamin Franklin, James Pemberton, Jonathan Penrose, Thomas 
Harrison, James Starr, William Lippincott, John Thomas, Benjamin 
Hornor, Samuel Richards, John Evans, John Todd, James Whiteall, 
Edward Brooks, Thomas Armat, John Warner, Samuel Davis, Thomas 
Bartow, Robert Evans, Robert Wood, Seymour Hart, Richard Hum- 
phreys, Robert Towers, Joseph Moore, Joseph Russell, William Zane, 
Israel Whelen, Samuel Baker, Richard Price, Charles Jervis, Israel 
Hallowell, Clement Biddle, Amos Wickersham, Pattison Hartshorne, 
Nathan Sellers, David Sellers, Isaac Parrish, Zachariah Jess, Dr. Ben- 
jamin Rush, John Field, Richard Jones, AVilliam Poyntell, Andrew 
Carson, Philip Price, John Hunt, junr., Norris Jones, John Morton, 
Thomas Penrose, Thomas Poultney, Thomas Eddy, Isaac Weaver, jun., 
Caleb Attmore, Joseph Budd, Abraham Sharpless, Isaac Massey, James 
Lewis, Thomas Shoemaker, Robert Morris, Jeremiah Paul, Thomas Savery, 
Francis Bailey, Thomas Shields, George Eddy, John Morrison. John 
Morris, Joseph Clark, Zachariah Poulson, junr., Thomas Parker, William 
Graham, Thomas Rogers, John Poultney, Isaac Bonsall, Joseph Cruk- 
shank, John Jacobs, Nathan Boys, William Ashby, Jacob Trasel, William 
Jackson, Charles Crawford, Ellis Yarnall, John Olden, Tench Cose, 
Jonathan Pugh, John Reece, Jacob Shoemaker, junr , William M'llhen- 
ney, Caleb Lownes, John Letchworth, William West, Isaac Pearson, 
Burton Wallace, Francis Johnson, Joseph Sharpless, Thomas Wistar, 
Joseph Lownes, Benjamin Say, Joseph Anthony, Caspar W. Haines, 
Joseph Bacon, George Rutter, David Lownes, Bartholomew Wistar, 
George Fox, William T. Franklin, William Rawle, James Trenchard, 
Conrad Hanse, Samuel Coates, Richard Wells, Sharp Delany, Jonathan 
Willis, junr., Joseph"" Gibbons, Samuel Pancoast, Kearney Wharton, Dr. 
James Hutchinson, Charles Williams, John Claypoole, John Dowers, 
Hilary Baker, George Latimer, Andrew Geyer, James Read, Peter 
Woglom, John Kaign, John Todd, junr., Philip Benezet, Joseph James, 
Dr. Caspar Wistar, Dr. Samuel P. Griffitts, Thomas Fitzgerald, Stephen 
Maxfield, Philip Price, junr., Israel Pleasants, Mordecai Churchman, 
Thomas Annesly, Benjamin W. Morris, John M'Cree, George Richie, 
James Olden, John Hutchinson, George Wilson, Jacob Parke, Thomas 
Lawrence, Dr. John Foulke, Jesse Waterman, James Trimble, Dr. Wil- 
liam Rogers, Dr. Nicholas Collin, Samuel M. Fox, Benjamin Shoemaker, 
Joseph P. Norris, George Roberts, Jeremiah Parker, Abraham Liddon, 
John Bleakley, Joseph Inskeep, Robert Wain, Richard Parker, John 
Starr, Nathan Allen Smith, Thomas Norton, Robert Taggart, Samuel 
Emlen, junr., William Kid, Dr. John Andrews, Zebulon Potts, Samuel 
Kinsby, Nathan Field, Daniel Trotter, Benjamin Taylor, James Smith, 
junr., Caleb Carmalt, Robert Roberts, William Chancellor, Thomas For- 
rest, Jonathan Jones, Ebenezer Breed, George Aston, Thomas Proctor, 
George Davis, John Smilie, Thomas Palmer, Anthony Felix Wuibert, 



Matthew Hale, Richard Peters, Joseph Thomas, Thomas Ross, Isaac 
Buckbee. Joshua Gilpin, Dr. Amos Gregg, Girard Vogels, Richard Riley, 
Samuel Claphamsou, Zaccheus Collins, Henry Hale Grayham, John Ely, 
Richard H. Morris, John Staplir, junr., Daniel May, Andrew Johnston, 
S. Barnett, William Welsh, Isaiah Harr, Charles Lukins, James Smith, 
J. Morris, Ambrose Updegraff, Peter Mondirf, Thomas Fisher, Robert 
Kammersly, John Smith, William Webb, John Roberts. John Kittera, 
William Brisband, William Gibbons, Samuel Updegraff, Caleb Johnson, 
Robert Verree, Dr. John Chapman. Alexander Addison. Samuel Red- 
wood, Rees Cadwallader, Samuel Jackson, Dr. John Luther, Dr. John 
Story, Benjamin Wright and Eli Lewis, all of the State of Pennsylvania; 

And Joseph Shottwell, junr., David Cooper, Samuel Allison, Thomas 
Redman, Thomas Stokes, John Wistar, Thomas Clements. Joseph Sloan, 
Ebenezer Howel, Clement Hall, James Jess. Benjamin Wright, Richard 
Wain, Stacy Biddle, Hezekiah Hughes, Thomas Githen, all of the State of 
New Jersey ; 

The honorable John Jay, and Matthew Clarkson, of the State of New 
York ; 

John Boggs, Caleb Kirk, and Warner Mifflin, of the State of Dela- 
ware ; 

Zebulon Hollingsworth, John Richardson, Woolman Hickson, John 
Feigle, Joseph Wilkinson, and John Needles, of the State of Maryland; 

Samuel Hopkins, Benjamin Forster, Euos Hitchcock, Benjamin West, 
Moses Brown, William Patton, Samuel Vinson, Thomas Robinson, and 
Jonathan Easton, of the State of Rhode Island ; 

John Saunders, George Tegal, and George Corbyn, of the State of 
Virginia ; 

Noah Webster, Thomas Gain, and Benjamin West, of the State of 
Massachusetts; 

Capel Loft, David Barclay, Granville Sharp. Dr. Richard Price, James 
Phillips, Thomas Day. Dr. Thomas Clarkson, the right Hon. William 
Pitt, Dr. John Coaklev Lettsora, William Dillwyn, Robert Robinson, 
and William Hollick, of the Kingdom of Great Britain; 

L'Abbe Raynal, Le Marquis de la Fayette, J. P. Brissot de Warville, 
Charton de Terriere, and Francis Clery du Pont, of the Kingdom of 
France ; 

And such other person and persons as shall be hereafter elected and 
chosen in the manner hereinafter mentioned, and their successors, be and 
they are hereby created and declared to be one body politic and corporate 
in deed and iu law, by the name, style and title of " The Pennsylvania 
Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and for the Relief of Free 
Negroes unlawfully held in Bondage, and for improving the condition of 
the African Race," and by the same name shall have perpetual succession, 
and shall be able to sue and to be sued, implead, and be answered unto in 
all courts of law and equity, and to make, have and use one common seal 
to give authenticity to their acts, deeds, records and proceedings, and the 



44 

same at their pleasure to break, alter, change and make anew, and to 
purchase, take and hold by gift, grant, demise, bargain and sale, will and 
devise, bequest, testament, legacy, or by any other mode of conveyance, 
any lands, tenements, goods, chattels, or estate, real, personal or mixed, or 
choses in action, not exceeding at any one time the yearly value of fifteen 
hundred pounds lawful money of Pennsylvania in the whole ; and the 
same to give, grant, bargain, sell, demise, convey and assure to others, for 
the whole or any lesser estate than they have in the same, in such manner 
and form as the said Society at their future meetings hereinafter described 
shall order and direct ; and to apply the rents, issues, and profits, income 
and interest of such estate, and the monies arising from the sales of any 
parts thereof, to the uses, ends, intents and purposes of their institution, 
according to the rules, orders, regulations, and constitution of the said 
Society, now in force, or which, according to the provisions hereinafter 
made, shall from time, to time be declared and ordained, touching and 
concerning the same, as fully and effectually as any natural person or 
body politic and corporate within this State, by the constitution and laws 
of this commonwealth, can do, and perform the like things. 

Section 3. And be it further enacted, and it is hereby enacted by the au- 
thority aforesaid, That the officers of the said Society shall consist of one 
President, two Vice-presidents, two Secretaries, one Treasurer, who shall 
also be the keeper of the common seal, and so many counsellors as the 
said Society shall from time to time think proper to appoint and elect, all 
of whom shall be chosen annually by ballot of a majority of votes of the 
whole number of members who shall be present at the quarterly meeting 
hereinafter mentioned, which shall be held ou the first second day of the 
week (called Monday) in the first month (called January) in every year 
after the passing of this act, or at such other time, and at such place, as 
the said Society shall, by their rules and orders, direct and appoint ; and 
of such committees, for carrying into execution the designs of the said in- 
stitution, as the said Society heretofore have, appointed, and hereafter at 
any of their quarterly or special meetings shall agree to, and appoint in 
the manner and form to be hereafter agreed upon. 

Section 4. And be it further enacted by the aidhority aforesaid, That the 
said society shall and may hold four quarterly meetings in every year, at 
such place and hour of the day as they shall agree unto, on every the first 
second day of the week (called Monday) in every the first, fourth, seventh 
and tenth months, called January, April, July, and October, in every 
year forever hereafter, and may adjourn the said quarterly meetings from 
time to time ; and shall and may hold such other special meetings as the So- 



45 

ciety by their rules and orders shall direct and appoint, and shall and 
may hold such other meetings as the president f the said Society shall 
think necessary to call, or one of the vice-presidents of the said Society, at 
the request of any six members thereof shall call, of which special meet- 
ings notice shall be given in two of the public newspapers printed in the 
city of Philadelphia, at least two days before the time of meeting ; at any 
of which quarterly or special meetings, or adjournments thereof, it shall 
and may be lawful for the said Society, or so many of them as shall meet, 
by a majority of voices to agree, to ordain and to establish such by-laws, 
rules, orders, and regulations as they shall judge necessary, for the well- 
ordering and governing the said Society; and for the well managing the 
affairs thereof, and to appoint such and so many committees, consisting of 
such of their members as they shall think necessary, to superintend the 
different departments of duties already undertaken by the Society hereto- 
fore subsisting, or hereafter to be undertaken by the Society, hereby es- 
tablished, and to receive the reports of such committees, and take such 
order thereon, as to them shall seem proper; and to fix and ascertain the 
terms and conditions upon which new members shall be admitted in the 
-aid Society, and upon which former members may be removed, and to 
define and ascertain the duties of the several officers and committees of 
the said Society, and to enforce the same by such reasonable fines and 
forfeitures to be imposed on delinquents, as they shall think proper, and 
for want of obedience in any «>f the members, committees, or officers of 
the said Society, to remove and displace them, and others to appoint, and 
rally to agree to, ordain, and establish all such bye-laws, rules, orders 
and regulations for the well governing of the said Society, for perpetua- 
ting a succession of its officers and performing the duties they have 
undertaken, or shall undertake as the said Society, at any of their said 
quarterly meetings or special meetings or adjournments thereof, shall by 
a majority of voices determine to he right and proper. Provided always 
nevertheless, That no real or personal estate above value of sixty dollars 
shall be disposed of, or the right and estate of the Society therein shall be 
lessened or altered, for the less, nor any bye-law, rule, order or regulation 
of the said Society enacted, repealed or altered, nor any sum of money 
appropriated to any new use not before agreed upon by any of the said 
meetings or committees to be appointed, unless the president or one of the 
vice-presidents, and at least twenty members shall be present at such meet- 
ing, and a majority of those present shall agree to the same. 

Ami provided also, That all and every the bye-laws, rules, orders and 
regulations already enacted and made, or hereafter to be enacted and 



4G 

made by the said Society, be reasonable in themselves and not contradic- 
tory to the constitution and laws of this commonwealth. 

Section 5. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the 
constitution of the Pennsylvania Society for promoting the abolition of 
slavery, and for the relief of free negroes unlawfully held in bondage, as 
enlarged at a meeting of the said Society held at Philadelphia, the twenty- 
third day of April, in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
seven, and all rules, orders, regulations and proceedings made and had by 
the said Society in pursuance thereof, be and they are hereby declared to 
be in full force and binding upon the said Society, by this act, created and 
incorporated, until the same shall be repealed, altered and annulled at a 
quarterly or special meeting or adjournment thereof, to be held in pur- 
suance of this act, as fully and effectually as if the same were to be origi- 
nally adopted by the said Society, hereby incorporated and created at one 
of their said meetings, 

Section 6. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That 
until the next election which shall be held by the said Society in pursu- 
ance of this act, the said Benjamin Franlclin shall be the president there- 
of, the said James Pemberton and Jonathan Penrose shall be the vice- 
presidents thereof, the said Benjamin Rush and Caspar Wistar shall be 
the secretaries thereof, the said James Starr shall be the treasurer thereof, 
and William Lewis, Myers Fisher, William Rawle, and John D. Coxe 
shall be the counsellors thereof, and that all and every the committee and 
committees heretofore appointed by the said Society for promoting the 
abolition of slavery and for the relief of free negroes unlawfully held in 
bondage, shall be and continue to be the officers and committees of the 
Society hereby created and incorporated, and shall report to, and account 
with the same, in the same manner as they would have done to the former 
Society in case this act had not passed. 

Section 7. And be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That this act 
shall in all things be construed in the most favorable and liberal manner 
to and for the said Society, in order to effectuate the privileges hereby to 
them granted ; and that no misnomer of the said corporation in any deed, 
will, testament, gift, grant, demise, or other instrument of contract, or con- 
veyance shall vitiate or defeat the same, if the said corporation shall be 
sufficiently described to ascertain the intent of the party or parties to give, 
devise, bequeath, convey, or assure to, or contract with the said corpora- 
tion hereby created by the name aforesaid. Nor shall any non-user of the 
said privileges hereby granted create any forfeiture of the same, but the 
same may be exercised by the said corporation, and notwithstanding their 



47 

failure to meet at any of the times herein specified, to hold their annual 
elections, the officers elected at any of the said annual elections shall con- 
tinue to hold and exercise their offices until others shall be duly elected 
to succeed them, at some future meeting of the said corporation. 

Signed by order of the House, 

RICHARD PETERS, Speaker. 

Enacted into a Law at Philadelphia, on Tuesday, the eighth day of 
December, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty-nine. 

Peter Zachary Lloyd, 

Clerk of the General Assembly. 



48 



CONSTITUTION 



PENNSYLVANIA SOCIETY 

FOR 

Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, Etc. 

As revised and adopted Ninth mo., (September) 29th, 1859. 



It having pleased the Creator of the world to make of one flesh all the 
children of men — it becomes them to consult and promote each others' 
happiness, as members of the same family, however diversified they may 
be, by color, situation, religion or different states of society. It is more 
especially the duty of those persons who profess to maintain for themselves 
the rights of human nature, and who acknowledge the obligations of 
Christianity, to use such means as are in their power, to extend the bless- 
ings of freedom to every part of the human race: and in a more particu- 
lar manner, to such of their fellow-creatures as are entitled to freedom by 
the laws and constitutions of any of the United States, and who, notwith- 
standing, are detained in bondage by fraud or violence. From a full 
conviction of the truth and obligation of these principles — from a desire 
to difiu.se them, wherever the miseries and vices of slavery exist, and in 
humble confidence of the favor and support of the Father of Mankind, 
the subscribers have associated themselves under the title of the " Penn- 
sylvania Society for promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and the Kelief 
of Free Negroes unlawfully held in Bondage, and for improving the con- 
dition of the African Eace." 

For effecting these purposes, they have adopted the following constitu- 
tion : 

I. The officers of this Society shall consist of a president, two vice-pre- 
sidents, two secretaries, a treasurer, a librarian and twelve counsellors, 
viz., four from the city of Philadelphia, and the remaining eight from 
such other places as the Society may from time to time determine. A 



49 

board of education of thirteen, an acting committee of seven, and a com- 
mittee on property, of three members, all of whom shall be chosen annu- 
ally by ballot, on' the last Fifth-day called Thursday, in the month called 
December. 

II. The president, or in his absence one of the vice-presidents, shall 
preside in all the meetings, and subscribe all the public acts of the Society. 
The president, or in his absence, either of the vice-presidents, shall more- 
over have the power of calling a special meeting of the Society whenever 
he shall judge proper. A special meeting shall likewise be called at any 
time, when six members of the Society shall concur in requesting it. 

III. The secretaries shall keep records of the proceedings of the Society, 
and shall correspond with such persons, and societies. as may be judged 
necessary to promote the views and objects of the institution. 

IV. The Treasurer shall keep all the monies and securities belonging 
to the Society, and shall pay all orders signed by the president or one of 
the vice-presidents, and countersigned by one of the secretaries, and also 
such orders as are referred to in Articles VII. and VIII. which orders 
shall be his vouchers for his expenditures. 

He shall have charge of the corporate seal, and affix the same when 
required by the Society. He shall report quarterly the balance in the 
treasury, to the credit of each account, and annually render a full state- 
ment of his receipts and expenditures. He shall, before entering upon 
his office, give a bond of not less than eight hundred dollars, for the 
faithful discharge of his duties. 

V. The librarian shall have charge of and keep a catalogue of the books 
and papers of the corporation, and see that they are preserved from loss or 
damage. He shall keep a record of all papers or books loaned, requiring 
the same to be returned to the library within one month. 

VI. The business of the counsellors shall be to explain the laws and 
constitutions of the States, which relate to the emancipation of slaves, and 
to urge their claims to freedom, before such persons or courts as are 
authorized to decide upon them. 

VII. The board of education shall superintend the schools established 
by the Society, and shall have the management of the funds appropriated 
to educational purposes. They shall also consider, suggest and supervise 
measures for the improvement of the condition of the colored^ people, and 
from lime to time prepare, and with the consent of the Society publish 

ics and reports thereon. 
Five members shall constitute a quorum to transact the general concerns 
of the board. All orders, drawn by their chairman, and attested by their 
secretary, shall be paid by the treasurer of the Society. They shall keep 
regular 'minutes of their proceedings, and produce them at every stated 
in. ■ ting of the Society. 

VIII. The acting committee shall transact such business as shall occur 
in the recess of the Society, and report the same at each quarterly meet- 
ing. They shall have a right, with the concurrence of the president or 
one of the vice presidents, to draw upon the treasurer for such sums of 
money as shall be necessary to carry on the business of their appoint- 

4 



50 

ment ; and be authorized to employ a clerk to transcribe their minutes 
into a book provided for the purpose. Four of them shall be a quorum. 

IX. The committee on property shall have supervision over the real 
estate of the Society, and direct all necessary repairs. 

X. No person shall be admitted to membership who has not been pro- 
posed at a previous meeting of the Society, nor shall an election take place 
in less than one month after the time of his being proposed. The concur- 
rence by ballot of two-thirds of the members present at a stated meeting 
shall be necessary for the admission of a member. 

Foreigners, or persons who do not reside in the city of Philadelphia, 
may be elected corresponding members of the Society, without being 
subject to an annual payment, and shall be admitted to the meetings of the 
Society during their residence in the city. 

XI. Every member upon his admission, shall subscribe the constitution 
of the Society, and contribute one dollar annually, towards defraying its 
contingent expenses : (Provided, that any member paying at one time the 
sum of thirty dollars or upwards, shall be exempt from all future annual 
contributions.) If he neglects to pay the same for more than two years, 
he shall, upon due notice being given him of his delinquency, cease to be 
a member. 

XII. The Society shall meet on the last Fifth-day called Thursday, in 
the months called March, June, September and December, at such place 
as shall be agreed to by a majority of the Society. 

XIII. No person holding a slave shall be admitted a member of this 
Society. 

XIV. No by-law or alteration of this constitution shall be made, with- 
out being proposed at a previous meetiug. All questions shall be decided, 
where there is a division, by a majority of votes. In those cases where 
the Society is equally divided, the presiding officer shall have a casting 
vote. 



51 



A. LIST 

Of those who have been elected Mer?ibers of the Society since its organization. 



Members who have held office in the Society are in small capitals, the highest office to which they attained 
being stated. (Del.) signifies that the party was a delegate to one or more of the Abolition Conventions held 
from 794 to 1837. 



Arthur Thomas, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 14, 1775. 
Seymour Hart, " " 

John Baldwin, Pres't, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 

14, 1775- 

Thomas Wishart, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 14, 1775. 
Samuel Davis, Treas'r, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 

14, 1775- 
Thomas Harrison, Sec'y, (del.), Phila., 

Pa., 4 mo. 14, 1775. 
John Browne, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 14, 1775. 
Joel Zane, " " 

Thomas Hood, Esq., Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 14, 

1775- 
James Morgan, Phila, Pa., 4 mo. 14, 1775. 
Richard Price, " 5 mo. 29, 1775. 

James Starr, Treas'r, Phila., Pa. 5 mo. 29, 
775- 



Cadwallader Dickinson, Phila., Pa., 5 mo. 29, 

1775- 

Wm. Lippincott, Phila., Pa., 5 mo. 29, 1775. 
Amos Wickersham, " " 

Chas. Eddy, " 8 mo. 23, 1775. 

Joseph Shotwell, Jr., Phila., Pa., afterward> 

of N. J., 8 mo. 23, 1775. 
Wm. Coates, Phila., Pa., 8 mo. 23, 1775. 
Matthew Henderson, Phila. Pa., 8 mo. 23, 

1775- 



John Hamilton, Phila., Pa., 8 mo. 2 
John Davis, '' « 

Joshua Comly, " < 

Thomas Morgan, " ' 

John Bull, Esq., " « 



1775- 



Interregnum from nth mo. 27, 1773, to 2d mo. 10th, 17S4, when the Society reorganized. 



John Thomas, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 16, 17S4. 
John Field, " " 

Benjamin Hornor, '' " 

Samuel Richards, Pres't, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 

16, 1784. 
Wm. Zane, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 16, 17S4. 
Jonathan Shoemaker, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 23, 

1784. 
John Evans, Treas'r, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 23, 

1784. 
Lambert Wilmer, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 23, 1784. 
John TODD, Sec'y " " 

James Whiteall, Pres't, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 

23, 1784- 
Isaac Gray, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. I, 1784. 
Joseph Russell, " " 

Edward Brooks, " " 

John Morton, " " 

Townsend Speakman, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 1, 

1784. 
Richard Humphreys, (tailor), Phila., Pa., 

3 mo. 8, 1784. 
Samuel Baker, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 8, 1784. 
Chas. Jervis, " " 

Thomas Armat, " " 

Israel Hallowell, " " 

Richard Jones, " " 



John Litle, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 15, 1784. 
John Warner, " " 

Daniel Seidrick " " 

Andrew Carson, " " 

Thomas Bartow, '' " 

Thomas Palmer, " " 

Robert Evans, " " 

Benjamin Myers, " " 

Clement Biddle, " " 

Jehu Eldridge, " " 

Robert Wood, " " 

Israel Whelen, " " 

Thomas Meredith, Pres't, Phila., Pa., 

3 mo. 15, 17S4. 
Joseph Moore, Phila., Pa., 3 mo., 15, 17S4. 
Nathan Sellers, " " 

David Sellers, " " 

Isaac Parrish, " " 

Zachariah Jess, Sec'y Delaware Abolition 

Society, Phila., Pa., afterwards of Del., 

3 mo. 15, 1784. 
Robert Coe, Recorder, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 

15. 1784. 
Robert Towers, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 15, 1784. 
Jacob Baker, " " 

Pattison Hartshorne, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 15. 

1784. 



52 



Dr. Benjamin Rush, Pres't, del. and Pres't 

Abolition Convention, Fhila., Pa., 3 mo. 

15, 1784. 
Wm. Poyntell. Phila., Pa., 8 mo., 30, 1784. 
Philip Price, Kingsessing, Phila. Co., 8 mo. 

30, 1784. 
John Hunt, Jr., Kingsessing, Phila. Co., 

8 mo. 30, 1784. 
Thomas Poultney, Phila., Pa., 8 mo. 30, 

1784. 
Robert Morris, (miller), Frankford, Ta., 

8 mo. 30, 1784. 
Norris Jones, Chester Co., Pa., 8 mo. 30, 

1784. 
Abraham Sharpless, Chester Co., Pa., 8 mo. 

30, 1784. 
Thomas Eddy, (del.), Phila., Pa., afterwards 

of N. Y., 8 mo. 30, 1784. 
Claries Crawford, Phila., Pa., 8 mo. 30, 

1784. 
Isaac Lloyd, Darby, Pa., 11 mo. 29, 1784. 
Evan Owen, Phila., " " 

Isaac Massey, Chester Co., Pa., 11 mo. 29, 

1784. 
John Tolbert, Chester Co., Pa., 11 mo. 29, 

1784. 
Chas. Dingee, Chester Co., Pa., 11 mo. 29, 

1784. 
Thomas Shoemaker, Phila., Pa., 11 mo. 29, 

17S4. 
Thomas Savery, Phila , Pa., 11 mo. 29, 1784. 
George Eddy, ' " " 

Isaac Weaver, Jr., " " 

Joseph Budd, " " 

James Lewis, " 

Caleb Attmore, " " 

John Jacobs, (son of Israel), Montgomery 

Co.. Pa., 2 mo. 28, 1785. 
Jonathan Penrose, Pres't, Fhilada., Ta., 

2 mo. 28, 1785. 
Wm. Trimble, Jr., Chester Co., Pa., 2 mo. 

28, 17S5. 

Thomas Shields, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 28, 1785. 
Francis Bailey, " " 

Jeremiah Paul, " " 

Amos Harmer, *' " 

Alex. Hale, " 5 mo. 30, 1785. 

Dr. Andrew Spence, Phila., Pa., 5 mo. 30, 

1785. 
Richard Riley, Marcus Hook, Pa., 8 mo. 

29, 1785. 

Joseph Clark, Phila., Pa., 8 mo. 29, 1735. 
Dr. John Morris, " " 

John Morrison, " " 

Major Wm. Jackson, Phila., Pa., 11 mo. 28, 

1785. 
Zachariah Poulson, Jr., Phila., Pa., 1 1 mo. 
28, 1785. 



Wm. Graham, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 27, 1786. 
Thomas Parker, V. Pres't, (del.), Phila. 

Pa., 2 mo. 27, 1786. 
Ellis Yarnall, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 27, 1786. 
Zebulon Potts, Esq , Montgomery Co., Pa., 

2 mo. 27, 1786. 
John Wistar, (del.), New Jersey, 5 mo. 29, 

17S6. 
Thomas Wistar, V. Pres't, Phila., Pa., 

5 mo. 29, 17S6. 
Nathan Boys, Phila., Pa., 5 mo. 29, 1786. 
Chas. Brown, " " 

Jacob Shoemaker, Jr., Phila., Pa., 5 mo. 29, 

1786. 
Wm. Linnard, Phila., Pa., 5 mo. 29, 1786. 
Wm. Ashby, " " 

Jonathan Pugh, French Creek, Chester Co., 

5 mo. 29, 17S6. 
John Oldden, Phila., Pa., 5 mo. 29, 1786. 
Burton Wallace, " " 

Duncan Stewart, ** " 

Jacob Trasel, " " 

Wm. Mcllhenney, " 8 mo. 28, 1786. 

Isaac Pearson, " " 

Wm. West, Chester Co., Pa., 8 mo. 28, 17S6. 
John Bartram, Jr. Phila., Pa., 8 mo. 28, 1786. 
Reece John, French Creek, Chester Co., 

8 mo. 28, 1786. 
John Letchworth, V. Pres't, Phila., Pa., 

8 mo. 28, 1786. 
Caleb Lownes, Phila., Pa., 8 mo. 28, 1786. 
Tench Coxe, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 11 mo. 27, 

1786. 
Col. Francis Johnston, Phila., Pa., II mo. 

27, 1786. 
Joseph Sharpless, Phila., Pa., 1 1 mo. 27, 1786. 
Thomas Rogers, " " 

Dr. Benj. Say, (del.) " " 

Joseph Lownes, " " 

James Read, Esq., " 2 mo. 26, 1787. 

John D. Coxe, Esq. " " 

John Hutchinson, " " 

Chas. Williams, " " 

Dr. John Story, " " 

John Poultney, " " 

Philip Price, Jr., " " 

Isaac Bonsall, " " 

David Lownes, " " 

Peter Woglom, " " 

Caleb Johnson, " 4 mo. 23, 1787. 

James Pemherton, Pres't, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 

23.1787. 
Hilary Baker, Esq., Mayor of Phila., Phila., 

Pa., 4 mo. 23, 1787. 
Jonathan Willis, Jr., Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 23, 

1787. 
Dr. Benj. Franklin, Pres't, Thila., Pa., 

4 mo. 23, 1787. 



53 



Caspar W. Hames, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 23, 

17S7. 
Samuel Pancoast, F., Phila. Pa., 4 mo. 23, 

1787. 
Conrad Hanse, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 23, 17S7. 
Joseph Anthony, " " 

John Dowers, " " 

Benj. Johnson, Lancaster, Pa., " 

George Rutter, W., Phila., " " 

James Trimble, " " 

Sharp Delany, " " 

Dr. John Luther, Chester Co., Pa., 4 mo. 

23. 17S7- 
Wm. Wronse, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 23, 1787. 
Wm. Temple Franklin, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 

23. 1787- 
Dr. Casp. Wistar. Jr., Pres't, (del.), Phila., 

Pa., 4 mo. 23, 1787. 
John Kaighn, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 23, 1787. 
Dr. James Hutchinson, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 

23. 1787. 
Philip Benezet, Phila., Pa., 4 mo 23, 1787. 
Rev. John Andrews, D. D., Phila., Pa., 

4 mo. 23, 1787. 
Samuel Updegrove, York Co., Pa., 4 mo. 

23, 1787- 
Rev. Wm. Rogers, D. D., V. P., (del.), 

Philadelphia, Pa., 4 mo. 23, 1787. 
John Claypoole, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 23, 1787. 
Richard Peters, Esq., Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 23, 

1787. 
John Smith, Lancaster, afterwards of Phila., 

4 mo. 23, 1787. 
Dr. John Foulke, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 23, 1787. 
John Todd, Jr., 

Bartholomew Wistar, " " 

Thomas Paine, " " 

Wm. Richards, " " 

Joseph Janus, Phila., afterwards of N. Y., 

4 mo. 23, 1787. 
Dr. John Chapman, Bucks Co., Pa., 4 mo. 

23, 1787- 
Benj. Wright, York, Pa., 4 mo. 23, 1787. 
James Smith, Jr., Esq., Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 

23. I7 S 7- 
Wm. R.AWLE, Esq., Pres't, (del. and Pres't 

Abolition Con., Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 23, 

1787. 
James Phillips, England, 6 mo. 5, 17S7. 
David Barclay, " " 

Capel Loft, " " 

Thomas Day, London, " 

Hon. John Jay, New York, " 
Col. Mathew Clarkson, Pres't New York 

Manumission Society, New York, 6 mo. 

5. 1787. 
Granville Sharp, Cor. Sec'y London Society, 

London, 6 mo. 5, 1787. 



Richard Wells, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 5, 17S7 
Robert Wain, " 

Robert Robinson, England, " 

Wm. Hollick, 

Joseph Bacon, Phila., Pa., " 

Nathan Allen Smith, Phila., Pa., " 
Wm. Gibbons, Lancaster Co., Pa., " 
Wm. Shaw, Philadelphia, " " 

George Latimer, " " " 

Joseph Crukshank," " " 

Samuel Emlen, Jr.," " " 

Benj. Shoemaker, " " " 

Samuel Coates, (del.), Phila., " " 
George Fox, " " " 

John W. Kittera, Lancaster, " " 
John McCree, Sec'y, (Sec'y Abolition Con- 
vention), Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 5, 1787. 
Bernard Fearis, " " 

Thomas Lloyd, " " 

George Aston, " " 

John Hopkins, " " 

James Jess, New Jersey, " 

Dr. Richard Price, England, " 
Dr. Thomas Clarkson, London, 6 mo. 5, 

17S7. 
L'Abbe Raynal, France, 6 mo. 5, 1787. 
Woolman Hickson, Maryland, 9 mo. iS, 

1787. 
Wm. Brisband, Lancaster Co., Pa., 9 mo. 

18, 1787. 
George Davis, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 18, 17S7. 
Robert Taggart, " " 

Jesse Waterman, " " 

James Trinchard, " " 

Toseph Gibbons, " " 

Dr. Samuel Powell Griffits, V. Pres't, 

(del.), Phila., Pa., 9 mo. iS, 1787. 
Wm. Honeyman, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 18, 1787. 
George Richie, " " " 

David Cooper, New Jersey, " 

Samuel Allison, " " 

Thomas Stokes, " " 

Andrew Geyer, Phila., Pa., " 

Joseph Parker Norris, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 

1 mo. 2, 1788. 
Samuel M. Fox, Phila., Pa., 1 mo. 2, 17S8. 
Clement Hall, (del.), Salem, N. J., " 
Dr. Ebenezer Howell, Salem, N. J., 1 mo. 

2, 1788. 
Thomas Annesley, Phila., Pa., I mo. 2, 17SS. 
Abram Liddon, " " 

Stephen Maxfield, " " 

Joseph Williamson, Chester River, Md. , 

1 mo 2, 1788. 
Thos. Richardson, New Garden, Md., 1 mo. 

2, 1788. 
Ebenezer Maule, Gunpowder, Md., 1 mo. 2, 

1788. 



54 



Robert Veree, Abington, Pa., i mo. 2. 1788. 
Jacob Parke, Phila., Pa., 1 mo. 2, 1788. 
Noah Webster, Jr., Sec'y Connecticut So- 
ciety, Connecticut, I mo. 2, 1788. 
Samuel Hopkins, Newport, R. I., 4 mo. 7, 

1788. 
Benjamin Foster, Newport, R. I., 4 mo. 7, 

1788. 
Enos Hitchcock, Providence, R. I., 4 mo. 7, 

1788. 
John Boggs, Welsh Tract, Del., 4 mo. 7, 

1788. 
George Roberts, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 7, 1788. 
Thomas Norton, " 

Thomas Lawrence, " 
John Sloan, (del.), Haddonfield, N. T-, 4 mo. 

7, 17S8. 
Wm. Dillwyn, London, 7 mo. 7, 1788. 
Israel Pleasants, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 7, 1788. 
Thos. Fitzgerald, " 10 mo. 6, 1788. 

Le Marquis de La Fayette, France, 10 mo. 

6, 1788. 
Stacy Biddle, New Jersey, 10 mo. 6, 1788. 
Richard Wain, " 
John Peter Brisot de Warville, France, 10 

mo. 6, 1788. 
John Needles, Maryland, 1 mo. 5, 1789. 
Warner Mifflin, Pres't Delaware Society, 

(del.), Delaware, 1 mo. 5, 1789. 
Aaron Hughes, New Jersey, 1 mo. 5, 1789. 
Thomas Redman, (del.), Haddonfield, N J., 

1 mo. 5, 1789. 
Wm. Chancellor, Phila., Pa., I mo. 5, 1789. 
John Bleakley, " 

George Wilson, " 

Dr. Solomon Bush, " 
Mordecai Churchman, Phila., Pa., 1 mo. 5, 

1789. 
Wm. Kidd, Phila., Pa., 1 mo. 5, 1789. 
John Ely, 
James Oldden, " 
John Saunders, Alexandria, Va., 1 mo. 5, 

1789. 
John Tegal, Virginia, 1 mo. 5, 1789. 
George Corbyn, Virginia, 1 mo. 5, 1789. 
John Roberts, Lancaster, Pa., 1 mo. 5, 1789. 
Wm. Webb, 

Benj. West. Providence, R. I., " 

Alex. Addison, Esq., Sec'y Washington, 

Pa., Society, Washington, Pa., 1 mo. 5, 

1789. 
Moses Brown, Treas. R. I. Soc, Providence, 

R. I., 4 mo. I, 1789. 
Thos. Gain, Boston, Mass., 4 mo. I, 1789. 
Wm. Pitt, Esq., London, " 

Thomas Clements, Chairman Salem Co. 

Society, (del.), Haddonfield, N. J., 

7 mo. 20, 1789. 



Wm. Patten, Newport, R. I., 4 mo. 1, 1789. 
Samuel Vinson, " " " 

Thos. Robinson, " " " 

Jonathan Easton, " " " 

jno. CoakleyLettsom, London, 41110. 1, 17S9. 
Daniel Trotter, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. I, 1789. 
Benj. Taylor, " " " 

James B Bonsall, near Darby, Pa., 4 mo. I , 

1789. 
Thos. Proctor, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 1, 1789. 
Ebenezer Breed, " 
Nathan Field, " " 

Jeremiah Parker, " " 

Jonathan Jones, " " 

Thomas Forrest, " " 

Charton de la Terriere, France, " 
Francis Clery Dupont, " " 

John Mears, Northumberland Co., Pa., 4 mo. 

1, 1789. 
John Brown, near Dover, Del., 4 mo. I, 1789. 
John Smilie, Esq., Fayette Co., Pa., 4 mo. I, 

1789. 
Matthew Hale, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 20, 1789. 
Joseph Inskeep, " " 

Thomas Clements, Chairman, Salem Co., So- 
ciety, (del.), Haddonfield, N.J., 7 mo. 
20, 1789. 
Rev. Nic. Collin, D. D., V. Pres't, Phila., 

Pa., 12 mo. 8, 1789. 
Richard Parker, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 8, 1789. 
John Starr, " " 

I Samuel Kingsley, " " 

Caleb Carmalt, " " 

Kearney Wharton, " " 

Benj. W. Morris, " " 

Robert Roberts, " 

Thomas Penrose, " " 

Zaccheus Collins, " " 

Henry Hale Graham, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 8, 

1789. 
Anthony Felix Wuibert, Phila , Pa., 12 mo. 

8, 1789. 
Sam'l Redwood, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 8, 1789. 
Rees Cadwallader, Redstone, Pa., 12 mo. 8, 

1789. 
Samuel Jackson, Chester Co., Pa., 12 mo. 8, 

1789. 
Eli Lewis, Little York, Pa., 12 mo. 8, 1789. 
Benjamin Wright, New Jersey, " 

Caleb Kirk, Delaware, " 

Zebulon Hollingsworth, Esq., Baltimore, 

Md., 12 mo , 8, 1789. 
John Richardson, Maryland, 12 mo. 8, 1789. 
John Feigle, " 

Benj. West, Massachusetts, " 

Joseph Wilkinson, (del.),Md., " 

Robert Kammersly, York Co., Pa., 1 mo. 4, 

1790. 



55 



Thos. Fisher, York Co., Pa., i mo. 4, 1790. 
Wm. Nelson, " " « 

Peter Mondirf, " « << 

AmbroseUpdegraff," " " 

John Morris, " " » 

James Smith, " " « 

Chas. Lukens, " " << 

Isaiah Harr, " " << 

Wm. Welsh, 

S. Bamett, " " « 

Andrew Johnson, " " << 

Daniel May, " " " 

Richard Hill Morris, Chester Co., Pa., 1 mo. 

4, 1790. 
Thos. Githen, Haddonfield, N. J., 1 mo. 4, 

1790. 
Hezekiah Hughes, Salem, N. J., 1 mo. 4, 

1790. 
Thos. Ross, West Chester, Pa., 1 

1790. 
John Stapler, Jr., Bucks Co., Pa., 1 

1790. 
Joseph Thomas, Phila., Pa., 1 mo. 4, 
Samuel Claphamson, " 



mo. 4, 



mo. 4, 
1790. 



Dr. Amis Gregg, 

Girard Vogels, 

Isaac Buckbee, 

Joshua Gilpin, 

Alexander Symington, " 4 mo. 5, 1790. 

Thomas Ames, " 

John Brown, Jr., " 

Wm. Delany, " 

Seth Willis, 

Chas Evans, " 

Jesse Maris, «« 

Geo. Roberts, F., " 

Chas. Robertson, " 

Wm. Waring, " 

Jos. Coiper, Jr., New Jersey, 

John Pope, Mansfield, N. J., 

John Denn, Salem, " 

Matthias Holstein, Darby, Pa., 

Nathaniel Newlin, " 

Joseph Hoskins, Chester Co., Pa., 

JoSEi'ii SANSOM, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 5, 

1790. 
George Meade, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 5, 1790. 
George Williams, (del.), Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 

5, 1790. 
Samuel Davis, Jr., Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 5, 

1790. 
John Biinghurst, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 5, 1790. 
John Inskeep, " << 

James Logan, " <« 

Joseph Wain, " « 

Gideon Dill Wells, " 
James Jobson, " " 

Thomas Hartley, York, Pa., " 



Thomas Scott, Pres't Washington, Pa., Ab. 
Society, (del.), Washington, Pa., 7 mo. 
5, 1790. 
Col. Absalom Baird, Treas'r Washington, 
Pa., Ab. Society, (del.), Washington, 
Pa., 7 mo. 5, 1790. 
David Reddick, Vice Pres't Washington, 
Pa., Abolition Society, Washington, Pa., 
7 mo. 5, 1790. 
James Allison, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 5, 1790. 
Alexander Wright, " " 

William Graham, Chester, Pa., " 
James Mcllvain, " " 

Robert Smith, " " 

Dr. George Logan, Germantown, Pa, 7 mo. 

5- 1790. 
John Vining, Delaware, 7 mo. 5, 1790. 
Hon. Wm. Pinckney, Md., 7 mo. 5, 1790. 
Philip Rodgers, Pres't Md. Society, Balti- 
more, Md., 7 mo. 5, 1790. 
Joseph Townsend, Sec'y Maryland Society. 
*■ (del.), Baltimore, Md., 7 mo. 5, 1790. 
John Browne, " " 

Elias Ellicott, " " 

Jesse Hollingsworth, (del.), Baltimore, Md., 

7 mo. 5, 1790. 
Dr. Sparman, Stockholm, Sweden, 7 mo. 5, 

1790. 
M. Vadstrom, Stockholm, Sweden, 7 mo. 5, 

1790. 
Rev. Wm. White, D. D., Phila., Pa., 10 mo. 

4. I79°- 
Joseph Shoemaker, Jr. Phila., Pa., 10 mo. 4, 

1790. 
Samuel Sitgreaves, Easton, Pa., 10 mo. 4, 

1790. 
Hon. Elias Boudinot, N. J., 10 mo. 4, 1790. 
Robert Brown, " " 

John Gaunt, " " 

Thos. Ballanger, " " 

Isaac Collins, Trenton, N. J., " 

Hon. Joseph Bloomfield, Pres't New Jersey 
Society, (del. and Pres't Ab. Conven- 
tion), Burlington, New Jersey, 10 mo. 4, 
1790. 
Dr. Lawrence, Burlington, N. J., 10 mo. 4, 

1790. 
Theodore Sedgwick, Mass., 10 mo 4, 1790. 
Samuel Neale, Cork, Ireland, " 

Samuel Hoare, Jr., London, " 

Wm. Wilberforce, England, " 

Dr. Erskine, Edinburg, " 

Dr. Samuel Stillman, Boston, Mass., 1 mo. 

3. I79I- 

David Howell, Pres't R. I. Society, Pro- 
vidence, R. I., 1 mo. 3, 1791. 

John Dorrance, V. Pres't R. I. Society, Pro- 
vidence, R. L, 1 mo. 3, 1791. 



56 



Thos. Arnold, Sec'y R. I. Society, Pro- 
vidence, R. I., I mo. 3, 1791. 
Daniel Lyman, Providence, R. I., 1 mo. 3, 

1791. 
Geo. Benson, Providence, R. I., I mo. 3, 1 791. 
Win. Patterson, New Jersey, 1 mo. 3, 1791. 
Burgess Allison, " " 

Henry Clifton, " " 

Uriah Woolman, " " 

Dr. Palmer, Augusta, Ga., I mo. 3, 1 791. 
Isaac Briggs, " " 

Rev. Ezra Stiles, D. D., Pres't Conn. So 

ciety, Connecticut, 1 mo. 3. I79 1 - 
David Austin, 2d Pres't Conn. Soc, Conn. 

1 mo. 3, 1 79 1. 
Simeon Baldwin, Sec'y Conn. Soc, Conn. 

1 mo. 3, 1791. 
Timothy Jones, Treas'r Conn. Soc, Conn. 

1 mo. 3, 1 79 1. 
Elizur Goodrich, Connecticut, I mo. 3, 1 791 
Mark Leavenworth, " " 

Capt. Wm. Lyons, " " ^ 

Dr. EbenezerBeardsley," " 

Dr, Jared Potter, " " 

Stacy Potts, Harrisburg, Pa., " 

Wm. Lucas, Phila., Pa., " 

Joseph Few, " 41110.4,1791. 

Rev. Jos. Pilmore, D. D., Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 

4, I79I- 
Israel Taylor, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 4, 1791. 
James Antrim, " " 

Wm. Brown, Jr., " " 

James Wilson, " " 

Wm. Wyatt Fentham, Maryland, " 
Jeremiah Smith, Phila., Pa., " 

Hon. Wm. Bingham, Vice Pres't, Phila., 

Pa., 7 mo. 4, 1 791. 
John Trump, Philad'a., Pa., 7 mo. 4, 1791. 
Thomas Paul, " " 

Timothy Matlack, " " 

Wm. Master, " " 

Ebenezer Large, " " 

Dr. Geo. Glentworth," " 

Richard Hopkins, " " 

Peter Stephen Duponceau, Esq., Phila., Pa., 

7 mo 4, 1 791. 
Jesse Trump, Whitemarsh, 7 mo. 4, 179 1. 
Thos. W. Pryor, " " 

Ephraim Steele, Carlisle, Pa., " 
John Jordan, " " 

Michael Hubley, Lancaster, Pa., " 
John Patrick, Cumberland Co., Pa., 7 mo. 4, 

1791. 
Joshua Fusey, Jr., Chester Co., Pa., 7 1110.4, 

I79i- 
Richard Hartshorne, Pres't N. J., Society, 
del. and Pres't Ab. Con., New Jersey, 
7 mo. 4, 1791. 



Dr. Moses Bartram, South Carolina, 7 mo. 

4. I79 1 - 
Isaac Milnor, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 2, 1792. 
Casper W. Morris, " " 

Robert Dawson, " " 

Lewis Walker, " " 

Samuel Foudray, " " 

Wm. Wood, 

George Steinmetz, " " 

George S. Moore, " " 

Samuel Sterrett, (del.), Baltimore, Md.^mo, 

2, 1792. 
Thomas Dixon, Baltimore, Md., 4 mo. 2, 

1792. 
George Churchman, Cecil Co., Md., 4 1110. 

2, 1792. 
Joseph Churchman, Cecil Co., Md., 4 mo. 2, 

1792. 
Richard Gardner, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 2, 1792. 
James Todd, Sec, (del.), Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 

2, 1792. 
James Poultney, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 2, 1792. 
John Elmslie, Jr. " " 

Dr. Daniel De Benneville, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 

2, 1792. 
James Morris, Montgomery Co., Pa., 7 mo. 

2, 1792. 
John Shoemaker, Jr., Abington, 7 mo. 2, 

1792. 
Jonathan Shoemaker, Abington, 7 mo. 2, 

1792. 
Samuel Riddle, York, Pa., 7 mo. 2, 1792. 
John Lukens, " " 

Emmor Baily, Chester Co., Pa., " 
Moses Marshall, " " 

David Shields, Maryland, " 

Morris Darling, " " 

Wm. Brown, " " 

Martin Eichelberger," " 

John Keller, " " 

Wm. Woods, " " 

John Mitchell, " " 

John Shultz, " " 

John Mickle, " " 

Abel Janney, Culpepper, Va., " 

John Smith, Jr., York, Pa., 12 mo. 24, 1792. 
Daniel Longstreth, Bucks Co., Pa., 12 mo. 

24, 1792. 
Jonathan Pickering, Bucks Co., Pa., 12 mo. 

24, 1792. 
Randall Malin, Jr., Chester Co., Pa., 12 mo. 

24, 1792. 
Joseph Malin, Chester Co., Pa., 12 mo. 24, 

1792. 
Benjamin Kite, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 

24, 1792. 
James Winchester, (del.), Maryland, 12 mo. 

24, 1792. 



57 



Joseph Price, Phila., Ta., 12 mo. 24, 1792. 
Chas. James Fox, Esq., London, 12 mo. 24, 

1792. 
Joseph Barger, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 1, 1793. 
William Garrett, " " 

Cornelius Barnes, " " 

James Hardie, " " 

Sallows Shewell, " " 

John Hallowed, Esq.," " 

Thomas Bartow, " " 

Robert Patterson, V. Presid't. (del.), 

Phila., Pa., 4 mo. I, 1793. 
Benj. R. Morgan, (del.), Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 

1. 1793- 
Robert Hare, Philad'a, Pa., 4 mo. 1, 1793. 
Owen Biddle, " 

Jonathan Carmalt, Jr., Phila., Pa., 4 mo. I, 

1793- 
Jacob R. Howell, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 1, 1793. 
Peter Le Barbier Duplessis, Phila., Pa., 

4 mo. 1, 1793. 
John Malin, Chester Co., Pa., 4 mo. 1, 1793. 
Charles Dilworth, Chester Co., Pa., 4 mo. I, 

1793- 
John Talbot, Delaware Co., Pa., 4 mo. I, 

1793- 
Seneca Lukens, Montgomery Co., Pa., 41110. 

. 1, 1793- 
Thomas Kennedy, Cumberland Co., Pa., 

4 mo. I, 1793. 
Albcrtin Gallatin, Fayette Co., Pa., 4 mo. 1, 

1793- 
Abraham Inskeep, New Jersey, 4 mo. 1, 

1793- 
John Vanderwerf, Amsterdam, Holland, 4 

mo. 1, 1793. 
John Vanderwerf, Jr., Amsterdam, Holland, 

4 mo. I, 1793. 
Nicholas Simon Van Winter, Leyden, 4 mo. 

1. 1793- 
Travis Tucker, near Norfolk, Va., 6 mo. 24, 

1793- 
John Smith, Delaware, 6 mo. 24, 1793. 
Nathan Harper, Frankford, Pa., 6 mo. 24, 

1793- 
Joseph Thomas, (Flour Factor), Phila., Pa., 

6 mo. 24, 1793. 
Samuel Williams, Jr., Phila., Fa., 6 mo. 24, 

1793' 

George Booth, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 24, 1793. 
Peter Barker, Jr., " " 

Dr. John Porter, " " 

Jonathan Worrill, " " 

John Harrison, (son of Thomas,) Phila., Pa., 
6 mo. 24. 1793. 
■^Wm. Richards, Lynn, England, 1 mo. 6, 

1794- 
William Martin, Chester, Pa., 1 1110. 6, 1794- 



John Beatson, Hull, England, 1 mo. 6, 1794. 
Win. Allum, New York, " 

Wm. Fox, London, England, " 

Abraham Booth, " " 

James Dore, " 

Dr. John Rippon, " " 

Abraham Chapman, Bucks Co., Pa , " 
Nathan F. Shewed, " " 

Seth Chapman, Montgomery Co., Pa., I mo. 

6, 1794. 
Slator Clay, Montgomery Co., Pa., I mo. 6, 

1794. 
Dr. Joseph Pierce, Chester Co., Pa., 1 no. 6, 

1794. 
James Trevor, Burlington, N. J., 1 mo. 6, 

1794. 
Walter Franklin, Sec'y., (del.),andPres't 

Ab. Conv., Phila., Pa, 1 mo. 6, 1794. 
John Coyle, " " 

William Wigglesworth, Phila., Pa., I mo. 6, 

1794. 
John Nancarrow, Phila., Pa., I mo. 6, 1794. 
Charles Shoemaker, " " 

Thomas Dunn, " " 

James Swain, N. Liberties, Phila. Co., 1 mo. 

6, 1794. 
Edward Farris, Phila., Pa., I mo. 6, 1794. 
John Rively, Kingsessing, Phila. Co., 4 mo. 

1, 1794- 
William Preston, (Bricklayer), Phila., Pa., 

4 mo. 1, 1794. 
Joseph D. Drinker, (Merchant), Phila., Pa., 

4 mo. I, 1794. 
Joseph Bedham Smith, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. I, 

1794. 
Timothy Paxson, Sec'y, (del. and Pres't 

of Ab. Conv.), Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 3. 

1794. 
Thos. P. Cope, (del. and Treas'r Ab. Conv.), 

7 mo- 3. 1794- 

Solomon White, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 3, 1794. 

Edward Garrigues, " " 

Thomas Say Bartram, " " 

Daniel Dawson, " " 

James Bringhurst, " " 

Joseph Turner, Phila. Co., Pa., " 

Wm. Gazzam, " " 

Wm. Turner, " " 
Wm. Barber, York, Pa., 

Watson Atkinson, Phila. Co., Pa., " 

Benjamin Davis, Radnor, '• 
Thomas Wickersham, Talbot Co., Md., 7 mo. 

3. I794- 
Chas. B. Brown, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 23, 1794. 
Israel Paxson, " " 

Benj. Tucker, V. Pres't, (del.), Phila., Pa., 

9 mo. 23, 1794. 
Thomas Keel, Baltimore, 9 mo. 23, 1794- 



58 



Samuel Bettle, (del.),Phila.,9mo.,23, 1794. 
Daniel Thomas, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 23, 1794 
John Poor, " " 

James Little, " << 

Ezekiel King, " " 

Joseph Keen, " " 

Leonard Sayre, '' " 

John McLeod, " " 

Philip Jones, Jr., " " 

Thomas Jones, " " 

John Jones, " " 

Thos. Ustick, Phila. Co., Pa., 
Richard Hillier, Long Island, " 

Rev. Elhanan Winchester, London," 
Thos. Memminger, Bucks Co., Pa.," 
Casper Wistar, Chester Co., Pa., " 
Isaac Taylor, " " 

Richard Strode, " " 

Edward Darlington, " " 

Cheyney Jefferies, " " 

Benjamin Webber Oakford, Delaware Co., 

Pa., 9 mo. 23. 1794. 
Abr'm Shoemaker, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 24, 1794 
Robert Shewell, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 24, 1794. 
John Woodsides, " " 

George S. Johannot, (del.), Baltimore, 12 

mo. 24, 1794. 
Wm. Mott, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 24, 1794.. 
Edward Stammer, " " 

John Stanford, New York, " 

Wm. Button, London, " 

Dr. John E. Harrison. England, " 
Thomas Fleeson, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 19, 1795. 
Plunket F. Glentworth, " « 

Nathaniel Davis, '' " 

Thomas Randall, " " 

Thomas Stewardson. " " 

John Hulme, Bucks Co., Pa., " 

Robert Shewell, " " 

Wm. Sharpless, Chester Co., Pa., 3 mo. 19. 
Samuel Painter, Jr., " " 

Hugh Barclay, Bedford Co., Pa., " 
Samuel Dexter, Massachusetts, " 
Morgan John Rhees, Wales, " 

Jonathan Gibbs, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 3, 1795. 
John Gardiner, Jr., " " 

Tared Mansfield, '' " 

Thomas W. Tallman, " « 

Abraham M. Garrigues," " 

Thomas Carpenter, " " 

Isaac Carlisle, " " 

James Pilling, " « 

John Vincent, " «« 

Edward Jones, " " 

Wm. Taylor, Jr., " " 

David Kempton, " " 

George Suckley, " " 

Joshua R. Smith, " " 



James Milnor, Sec'y, (del. and Pres't Ab. 

Con v.), Norristown, Pa., afterwards 

Phila., 9 mo. 25, 1795. 
Joseph Gurney, London, 9 mo. 25, 1795. 
John Gurney, •' " 

Robert Frazer, (del.), Chester Co., Pa., 9 

mo. 25, 1795. 
Wm. Jones, (del.) Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 25, 

1795- 

Jacob Johnson, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 25, 1795. 
Peter Smyth, " « 

Wm. Young Birch, " 2 mo. 22, 1796. 

Isaac T. Hopper, (del.), Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 

22, 1796. 
John Derbyshire, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 22, 1796. 
John Ormrod, •« " 

Wm. Gibbons, " " 

Emmor Kimber, " " 

Wm. Smith, (Tailor), " 
Elijah Waring, " " 

Enoch Lewis, " " 

George Ashbridge, " " 

James Girvan, " " 

Isaac Sermon, " " 

Chas. Newbold, «• " 

Robert Pleasants, " " 

Basil Wood, 

Peter Helm, " " 

John Griffiths, " " 

Wm. Griffiths. " " 

Joseph Hemphill, Chester Co., Pa., " 
Isaac Bailey, Jr., " " 

Richard Barnard, Jr., " " 

Isaac Wilson, " " 

John Jefferis, " " 

Caleb Massey, " 4 mo. 4, 1796. 

Theophilus Foulke, Bucks Co., Pa., " 
Joseph Taylor, " " 

John Brown, Falls Township, Bucks Co., 

4 mo. 4, 1796. 
Thomas Lloyd, South Wales, 4 mo. 4, 1796. 
Wm. Lownes, Falls Township, Bucks Co., 

4 mo. 4, 1796. 
John J. Parry, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 28, 1796. 
Wm. Barker, 
Thos. Newnham, 
Charlton Yeatman, 
Richard Mosley, 
John Burk, 
John Jones, 
Jeffrey Smedley, Chester Co., Pa., " 
John Fling, Phila., Pa., 10 mo. 3, 1796. 
Gilbert Gaw, Jr., " " 

Titus Bennett, " " 

W. Wright, Pres't Colum. Soc, (del.), Lan- 
caster Co., 10 mo. 3, 1796. 
Othniel Alsop, (del. and Sec'y Abo. Conv.), 
Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 1, 1796. 



59 



Samuel Jones, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 1, 1796. 
Ezra Varden, " " 

Richard Lee, " " 

John Turner, " " 

Joseph Marshall, Jr.," " 

Joseph Engle, " " 

John B. Ackley, " " 

Thomas Perkins, " 
Matthew Watson, " " 

Samuel Wallis, Lycoming Co., Pa., 12 mo 

1, 1796. 
John Adlum, Lycoming Co., Pa., 12 mo. 1 

1796. 
Win. Ellis, Lycoming Co., Pa., 12 mo. I 

1796. 
Caleb Hoopes, Chester Co., Pa., 12 mo. 1 

1796. 
Thomas Taylor, Chester Co., Pa.. 12 mo. 1 

1796. 
James Lindley, Chester Co., Pa., 12 mo. 1 

1796. 
Henry Hoopes, Chester Co., Pa., 12 mo. 1 

17961 ^ T, 

Robert Lambourn, Jr., Chester Co., Pa., 12 

mo. I, 1796. 
Archibald McLean, Alexandria, Va., 12 mo 

1, 1796. 
Samuel Garrigues, Jr., Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 14 

1797. 
Joseph Dilworth, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 14, 1797 
Gervas W. Johnson, " " 

Joseph Merrefield, " " 

Abraham Parker, " " 

Levi Garrett, " " 

Wm. A. Stokes, " " 

Ileniy Atherton, Jr., Bucks Co., Pa., " 
Matthias Hutchinson, " " 

Wm. Buckman, " " 

Samuel Johnson, (Hatter)," " 

Samuel Brown, " " 

Joseph Roberts, Montgomery Township, 

Mont. Co., Pa., 2 mo. 14, 1797. 
Benj. Evans, Wales, 2 mo. 14, 1797. 
Wm. Nichols, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 12, 1797. 
Elisha Gordon, " " 

Matthew Carey, " " 

Samuel Shinn, " " 

Henry Holdship, " " 

Chas. Carey. " " 

Benj. Cresson " " 

James Strawbridge, " " 

Samuel Barnes, " " 

John U. Pinkerton, " " 

Henry Toland, " " 

Michael Keppele, Esq., Thila., Pa., 6 mo. 

12, 1797. 
,Henry Drinker, Jr., Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 12, 

1797. 



Wm. Macbean, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 12, 1797. 

John Armstrong, " " 

Wm. Vicary, " 

Wm. Penrose, Phila. Co., Pa., " 

James Hopkins, Lancaster, Pa., " 

Joshua Sullivan, Lower Dublin, " 

Leger Felicete Sonthonax, French Commis- 
sioner, Cape Francois, St. Domingo, 1 1 
mo. 9, 1797. 

Julien Raimond, French Commissioner, Cape 
Francois, St. Domingo, 11 mo. 9, 1797. 

M. Pascal, Secretary General to French 
Commission, Cape Francois, St. Do- 
mingo, 11 mo. 9, 1797. 

Benj. Giroud, Cape Francois, St. Domingo, 

11 mo. 9, 1797. 

Geo. Worrall, Phila., Pa., 11 mo. 9, 1797. 

James Traquair, " 

John Miller, M. C, " 

John Lodor, " " 

Samuel Cooper, " " 

Edmund Kinsey, " 

Daniel Smith, Northumberland Co., Pa., 11 

mo. 9, 1797. 
Thomas Vickers, Chester Co., Pa., 12 mo. 

22, 1797. 
Dr. Henry Yates Carter, Germantown, Pa., 

12 mo. 22, 1797. 

James Murray, Bucks Co., Pa., 12 mo. 22, 

1797. 
Ezekiel E. Maddock, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 

22, 1797. 
Wm. L. Maddock, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 22, 

1797. 
Ebenezer Hickling, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 22, 

1797. 
Thomas Smith, (Printer), Phila., Pa., 5 mo. 

28, 1798. 
John J. Malcom, Phila., Ta., 5 mo. 28, 179S. 
Richard Vidler, " " 

Samuel Lippincott, " " 

John Baily Wilson, " " 

"Daniel Broadhead, Jr.," 
John Cadwallader, Huntingdon Co., Pa., 

5 mo. 28, 1798. 
Robert Patterson, Jr., Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 

25. 1798. 
Robert Cochran, Phila., Pa., 12 mo, 25, 1798. 
Robert C. Martin, " " 

Oliver Evans, " " 

Richard Rush, Esq., Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 29, 

1799. 
James W. Clements. Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 29, 

1799. 
Joseph Reed, Esq., Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 29, 

1799. 
John Tiesvvorth, Northumberland Co., Pa , 

3 mo. 29, 1799. 



60 



Joseph Sinton, Sunbury, Pa., 3 mo. 29, 1799. 
George Taylor, Jr., Phila., Pa., 5 mo. 27, 

1799. 
Samuel Harvey, Sec'y, Germantown, Pa., 

5 mo. 27. 1799. 
Samuel Smith, (currier), del., Phila., Pa., 

5 mo. 27, 1799, 
Joseph Hopkinson, (att'y), Phila., Pa., 5 mo. 

27, 1799. 
Wm. Griffith, Bedford Co., Pa., 5 mo. 27, 1799. 
Thos. Peirce, Chester Co., Pa , 5 mo. 27, 1799. 
Wm. Petrikin, Lycoming Co., Pa., 5 mo. 27, 

1799. 
Samuel Davis, Kent Co., Md. 5 mo. 27, 1799. 
Philip Kinsey, Jr., Phila., Pa., I mo. 2, 1800. 
Dr. Felix Pascalis, " " 

John Reynell Coates, (del. and Sec'y Abo. 
Convention), Phila., Pa., 1 mo. 2, 

1800. 
Luke Cassinj Delaware Co., Pa., 1 mo. 2, 

1800. 
G. Washington Gibbons, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 

1, 1S00. 
Joshua Lippincott, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. I, 1800. 
Hanson Waters, " " 

Nathaniel Chapman, Jr., Va., " 

Abraham Hilyard, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 29, 

1800. 
James A. Neal, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 29, 1800. 
Mordecai Wetherill, " " 

Robert Taylor, " " 

Solomon W. Conrad, " " 

Richard Peters, Jr., (del. and Pres't Abo. 

Conv.), Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 29, 1800. 
Chas. Townsend, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 1, 1801. 
John Bacon, Sec'y, (Sec'y Ab. Conv.), 

Phila., Pa., 4 mo. I, 1801. 
Abraham Lower, (del,), Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 1, 

1S01. 
Chas. Allen, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 1, 1S01. 
Nathan Smith, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 41110. 1, 

1 801. 
Thomas Stroud, Phila., Pa., 41110. I, 1S01. 
Henry Baker, " 

James Tongue, Ann Arundell Co., Md., 

4 mo. 1, 1 801. 
Josiah White, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 4, 1S01. 
Joseph Wright, (sailmaker), Phila., Pa., 7 

mo. 4, 1 So 1. 
Ephraim Haines, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 4, 1S01. 
Samuel F. Bradford, " " 

Joshua Longstreth, " " 

Richard Wevill, 
Joseph Trimble, Jr., Delaware Co., Pa , 7 

mo. 4, 1S01. 
Bent. Williams, (currier), Sec'y, (del. and 

Sec'y Abo, Conv.), Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 4, 

1 801. 



John Meredith, Delaware Co., Pa., 7 mo. 4. 

1S01. 
Matthew Llewellyn, Phila., Pa., 10 mo. 2, 

1 801. 
Ebenezer Clark, Phila., Pa., 10 mo. 2, 1801. 
John Dorsey, " " 

Alexander Shaw, " " 

John M. Smith, " " 

George Vaux, (del.), " 12 mo. 31, 1801. 
Jeremiah Warder, Jr.," " 

Henry Dean, " " 

Benj. Marshall, " 7 mo. 1, 1802. 

John Sergeant, (del. and Pres't Ab. Conv.), 

Philadelphia, Pa., 7 mo. I, 1802. 
James Robeson, Jr., Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 1, 1802. 
Benj. Rowland, Montgomery Co., Pa., 7 mo. 

I, 1802. 
Thomas Marshall, Delaware Co., Pa., 7 mo. 

1, 1802. 
John Folwell, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 1, 1803. 
Caleb Wright, " 
Joseph M. Paul, V. Pres't, (del.), Phila., 

Pa., 3 mo. 1, 1803. 
John Partridge, (attorney), Elkton, Md., 3 

mo. I, 1803. 
Dr. Wm. Shaw, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 28, 1804. 
John Brown, (silver plater), Phila., Pa., 6 

mo. 28, 1808. 
David McKinney, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 28, 1804. 
Lindsay Nicholson, " " 

Archibald Binney, " " 

James Ronaldson, " " 

Thomas Bryan, " " 

Samuel English, " " 

Joseph R. Jenks, (del.), Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 

29, 1804. 

Evan Lewis, Jr., (del. and V. President Ab. 

Con.), Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 29, 1804. 
Jacob S. Wain, Jr., (del. and Sec'y Ab. 

Conv.), 9 mo. 29, 1804. 
Abel Satterthwaite, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 29. 1804. 
Benj. H. Smith, Delaware Co., Pa., 11 mo. 

20, 1804. 
Wm. Milnor, Bucks Co., Pa., 11 mo. 20, 1S04. 
John Kaighn, Phila., Pa., II mo. 20, 1S04. 
Thos. Owen, Jr., " 6 mo. 28, 1805. 

Chas. Eberlee, " 

JobB. Remington, " 4 mo. 4, 1806. 

Wm. Brown, " " 

John Sims, (painter), Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 7, 

1806. 
Geo. D. Jones, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 7, 1806. 
Joseph Parker. Sec'y, (del. and V. Pres't 

Ab. Con.), Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 7, 1806. 
Joseph Ridgway, (tailor), Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 

30, 1807. 
Richard Pryor, (hatter), Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 

30, 1807. 



61 



Thomas Kite, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 22, 1807. 
Wm. Delaney, Esq., " " 

Joseph D. Martin, '' " 

Abraham L. Pennock, Sec'y, (del. and 

Pres't Abolition Convention), Phila., 

Pa., 6 mo. 22, 1807. 
Roberts Vaux, (del.), Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 22, 

1807. 
Chas. C. French, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 6, 1807. 
Nathan Dunn, " " 

Jesse Thomas, " " 

Thomas Field, " " 

Benj. Davis, " " 

Thomas PHiPPS.Tr'r," 12 mo. 21, 1807. 
Joseph R. Hopkins, " " 

John Bradley, " 6 mo. 28, 180S. 

Joseph T. llallowell, " " 

John Parham, " " 

Benj. Mitchell, Jr., " " 

Matthew Semple, " 9 mo. 27, 1808. 

Geo. Palmer, " 12 mo. 16, 1808. 

Stephen Pike, (del.), " ■ " 

Dr. William Price, " 3 mo. 31, 1809. 

Jonah Thompson " " 

Joseph Walton " II mo. S, 1809. 

Isaac Smedley, " 9 mo. 4, 1810. 

Jonathan Fell, Jr., " 4 mo. 3, 1S12. 

Israel Maule, " " 

David Jones, (hatter)," " 

Wm. Wayne, Jr., Pres't, (del.), Phila., Pa., 

4 mo. 3, 1 Si 2. 
Philip Price, Jr , (del.), Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 2, 

1813. 
Edward Parker, Phila., Pa., 2 mo. 2, 1813. 
Wm. Milnor, " 3 mo. 15, 1813. 

Thomas Shipley, Pres't, (del. and Pres't 

Ab. < Ion. ), Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 15, 1813. 
Chas. E. Smith, 
Joseph Lea, (del. and Treas'r Abol. Conv.), 

Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 15, 1813. 
Asa Bassett, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 8, 1813. 
Wm. Bryant, " " 

Andrew Fisher, " " 

Ward Griffin, " 

Wm. Carman, " 3 mo. 17, 1814. 

Chas. Longstreth," " 

Benj. H. Yarnall, " " 

Wm. Thomas, " " 

Dr. David J. Davis, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 17, 1814. 
Thomas Jacobs, Up. Providence, Montg'y 

Cc, 3 mo. 17, 1814 
John Barnett, Up. Providence, Montg'y Co., 

3 mo. 17, 1S14. 
Samuel Webb, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 30, 1815. 
Benj. M. Hinchman, " " 

John Hinchman, " " 

EDWARD Nkkoi.es, Pres't, (del.), Phila., 
Pa., 3 mo. 25, 1816. 



Henry Troth, Treas'r, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 

25, 1816. 
John Elliott, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 25, 1S16. 
Samuel Sellers, " 
Wm. Folwell, Jr.," " 

Benj. Albertson, " " 

Jacob F. Walter, " " 

James Mott, Jr., Sec'y, (del.), Phila., Pa., 

3 mo. 25, 1816. 

John H. Willets, Phila.. Pa., 3 mo. 25, 1816. 
Powell Stackhouse, Phila., 9 mo. 23, 1816. 
Jonathan Thomas, " 9 mo. 23, 1S16. 

George Bourne, " " 

Dr. Anthony Benezet, Phila., Pa. 12 mo. 19, 

1816. 
Benj. C. Parvin, (del.), Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 

19, 1816. 
Joseph McDowell, Phila., Pa., i2mo. 19, 1816 
Dr. Joseph Parrish, Pres't. (del.), Phila., 

Pa., 12 mo. 19, 1816. 
Philip Garrett, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 19, 1S16. 
Wm. Kirkwood, Columbia, Pa., 12 mo. 19, 

1816. 
James Wright, Columbia, Pa., i2mo. 19,1816. 
Jos. Mifflin, (del. and Sec. Columbia Abol. 

Society), Columbia, Pa.. 12 mo. 19, 1S16. 
Caleb Richardson, (bookseller), Phila., Pa., 

4 mo. 9, 1817. 

Samuel Austin, (merchant), Phila., Pa. 4 mo. 

9, 1817. 
Wm. P. Paxson, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 9, 181 7. 
Benj. C. White, 
Thomas P. May, Pottsgrove, Chester Co., 

Pa., 4 mo. 9, 1817. 
Samuel Schaeffer, Coventry, Chester Co., 

Pa., 4 mo. 9, 1817. 
Stephen Rossetter, Coventry, Chester Co., 

Pa., 4 mo. 9, 1 817. 
Mordecai Thomas, Coventry, Chester Co., 

Pa.. 4 mo. 9, 1817. 
Thos. Vickers, Chester Co., Pa., 6 mo. 20, 

1817. 
Wm. Harland, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 20, 1817. 
Wm. Kennard, Jr., " " 

Bartholomew Wistar, " " 

George A. Madeira, " " 

Joseph Askew, " " 

Samuel Griscom, " " 

Rev. George Boyd, (del.), N. L. Phila., Pa., 

9 mo. 22, 1817. 
Joseph Knight, Phila., Pa.. 9 mo. 22, 1817. 
Richard C. Wood, (del. and Sec'y Abolition 

Con.), Philadelphia, Pa., 9 mo. 22, 1817. 
Joseph Rotch, " " 

Wm. Garrigues, Jr., " " 

Pleasants Winston, Richmond, Va., 9 mo. 

22, 1S17. 
Thos Lewis, Chester Co., Pa., 9 mo. 22, 1S17. 



62 



Dr. Wm. Staughton, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 22, 

1817. 
Dr. Jonas Preston, V. Pres't, (del. and 

Treas'r Abolition Conv.), Phila., Pa., 9 

mo. 22, 1817. 
Clement Laws, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 22, 181 7. 
Luther Rice, Adams Co., Pa., 9 mo. 22,1817. 
David Worth, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 22, 1817. 
Ellis Stokes, 

Thomas Christian, " " 

Joseph Pyle, " " 

Samuel Smith, N. L. Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 22, 

1817. 
Nicholas Wireman, (son of Wm.), Adams 

Co., Pa., 9 mo. 22, 1817. 
Jesse Russell, Adams Co., Pa., 9 mo. 22, 1817. 
George Wilson, " " 

Samuel Wright, (son of Benj.), Adams Co., 

9 mo. 22, 1817. 
Joseph Cloud, (U. S. Mint), Phila., Pa., 12 

mo. 4, 1 81 7. 
Dr. Nathan Shoemaker, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 

4, 1817. 
Joseph Cowperthwaite, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 4, 

1817. 
Blakey Sharpless, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 12 

mo. 4. 1S17. 
Benj. M. Hollinshead, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 

4, 1817. 
Joseph S. Kite, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 4, 1817. 
Richard Parker, " " 

James R. Greaves, " " 

Thomas Parker, Jr., " " 

Phineas Davis, York, Pa., " 

Abner Thomas, " " 

Augustus S. Kirk, " " 

David Paul Brown, (del.), Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 

13, 1818. 
Joseph M. Truman, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 13, 

1818. 
John Field, Jr., Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 13. 1818. 
Joseph G. Oliver, Milford, Del., " 
Wm. P. Milnor, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 1, 1818. 
Adam Whann, Elkton, Md., " 

Zebulon Rudulph, " " 

Edward D. Corfield, Esq., N. L., Philada., 

Pa., 6 mo. 1, 1818. 
Samuel C. Atkinson, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 1, 

1818. 
Thomas Garrett, Jr., (del.), Darby, Pa., 6 

mo. 1, 1818. 
Wm. Davis, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 1, 1818. 
Ellis Yarnall, Jr., " 
John Ella, " " 

Joseph Roberts, Jr., Phila., Pa , 6 mo. 1, 1S1S. 
lohn Bartlett, " " 

Benj. Smith, " " 

Ed. H. Bonsall, " " 

James Wilson, " " 



Moses Gillingham, Maryland, 6 mo. 1, 1S1S. 

Thos. Gillingham, " '• 

Dr. Edwin A. Atlee, (del.), Phila , Pa., 6 

mo. 1, 181 8. 
Townsend Sharpless, Phila, Pa., 6 mo. 1, 1S1S, 
Jacob F. Wilkins, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 1, 1818. 
Lewis Wernwag, Phoenix Works, Chest. Co., 

9 mo. 14, 1818. 
George White, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 14, 1818. 
George Robinson, *' " 

George Peterson " " 

Isaac Parry, N. L., Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 14, 

1818. 
David Weatherby, (del.), Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 

14, 1818. 
Daniel Smith, G., Phila, Pa., 9 mo. 14, 

1818. 
Dr. G. Burgin, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 14, 1S1S. 
Caleb Cresson, " " 

Moses Lancaster, N. L., Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 

14, 1818. 
James Cox, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 14, 1818. 
Wm. Rawle, Jr., (del.), Phila, Pa., 91110. 

14, 1818. 
Jesse J. Maris, Delaware Co., Pa., 9 mo. 

14, 181S. 
John K. Garrett, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 14, 1S1S. 
Robert Murphey, " 12 mo. 7, 18 1 8. 

Samuel B. Morris, " '' 

Solomon Temple, (del.), Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 

7, 1818. 
Isaac Barton, V. Pres't (del. & Treas'r 

Abolition Convention) Phila, 12 mo. 7, 

1S18, 
Simon Wilmer, Swedesborough, N. J., 12 

mo. 7, 1818. 
Joseph E. Mcllhenny, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 22, 

1819. 
Thomas G. West, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 22. 181 9. 
Geo. D. B. Keim, Reading, Pa., 3 mo. 22, 

1819. 
Wm. Mcllhenny, Jr., Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 22, 

1819. 
A. Benezet Cleaveland, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 

22, 1819. 
Wm. P. Richards, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 22, 1819. 
John Bechtel, " " 

Joshua Wright, " " 

Isaac Ellis, Montgomery Co., " 

Wm. Kirk, Chester Co., Pa., " 

David J. Snethan, N. L., Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 
Benj. Stevens, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 22, 1819. 
James Givan, " " 

Andrew Miller, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 7, 1819. 
John S. Pearson, near Reading, Pa., 9 mo. 

7, 1819. 
Hezekiah P. Sampson, Phila., 9 mo. 7, 1819. 
Dr. Geo. S. Schott, " " 

George Campbell, " "" 



63 



Wm. A. Budd, Phila., 9 mo. 7, 1819. 
Thomas J. Carlisle, " " 

James Hansel], " " 

George Widdifield, " " 

Caleb Carmalt, Jr., (del.), Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 

7, 1819. 
Curtis Taylor, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 7, 1819. 
Wm. Harris, '' " 

John Antrim, " " 

James Rogers, " " 

Thomas Hale, " " 

Joseph H. Smith, " " 

Joseph Lukens, " " 

Peter Wright, Treas'r, (del.), 9 mo. 7, 

1819. 
Richard B. Bowdle, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 7, 

1819. 
Jacob T. Bunting, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 7, 

1819. 
Thomas Ridgway, Sec'y, (del.), Phila., Pa., 

3 mo. 5, 1 82 1. 
John Wilson, Whitemarsh, Montgomery Co., 

Pa., 12 mo. 24, 1819. 
Alan W. Corson, Whitemarsh, Montg'y Co., 

12 mo. 24, 1819. 
Isaac Jeanes, Whitemarsh, Montg'y Co., 12 

mo. 24, 1819. 
Wm. Jeanes, Whitemarsh, Montg'y Co., 12 

mo. 24, 1 8 19. 
Samuel Felty, Whitemarsh, Montg'y Co., 12 

mo. 24, 1S19. 
David Wilson, Whitemarsh, Montg'y Co., 

12 mo. 24, 1819. 
Samuel Malsby, Plymouth, Montg'y Co., 12 

mo. 24, 1819. 
John Henderson, Esq., Norristown, Pa., 12 

mo. 24, 1 81 9. 
Joseph Thomas, Norristown, Pa., 11 mo. 24, 

1819. 
Dr. Isaac Iluddleston, Norristown, Pa., 12 

mo. 24, 1819. 
Jacob Albertson, Plymouth, Montg'y Co., 12 

mo. 24, 1819. 
Dr. Joseph Leedom, Plymouth, Montg'y 

Co., 12 mo. 24, 1819. 
W r m. Ellis, Norristown, Pa., 12 mo. 24, 1819. 
Jonathan Ellis, " " 

Amos R. Ellis, White Plains, " 

Hiram McNeil, Esq., Moreland, Montg'y 

Co., 12 mo. 24, 1 8 19. 
Justus Sheetz, Montgomery Co., Pa., 12 mo. 

24, 1819. 
Isaac Bellangee, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 24, 1819. 
Samuel MASON, Jr., Sec'y, Philadelphia, 

Pa., 12 mo. 24, 1819. 
David Coggins, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 24, 1819. 
John Simmons, " " 

Isaac Jackson, Reading, Pa., " 



John M. Ogden, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 13, 1S20. 
Jonathan Conard, " " 

James W. Murray, (Att'y, del.) Phila., Pa., 

3 mo. 13, 1820. 
John Keating, Jr., (Att'y, del.), Phila., Pa., 

3 mo. 13, 1820. 
John Coles Lowber, (Att'y, del.), Phila., 

Pa., 3 mo. 13, 1820. 
Thomas Earle, V. Pres't, (del.), Phila., 

Pa., 3 mo. 13, 1820. 
Isaac Barker, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 13, 1S20. 
Joshua Kimbe?, " 6 mo. 5, 1820. 

Peter Lehman, " " 

Samuel White, " " 

John B. Ellison, " " 

Robert Ellison. " " 

John Collard, Kensington, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 

5. 1820. 
John B. Chapman, Northumberland Co., 

6 mo. 5, 1820. 
Dr. John M. Lynn, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 26, 

1820. 
Gen. Wm. Duncan, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 26, 

1820. 
Lewis Reese, Reading, Pa., 12 mo. iS, 1S20. 
Benj. Davis, " " 

Thomas Lewis, Robinson Township, Berks 

Co., 12 mo. 18, 1820. 
Chas. Miner, West Chester, Pa., 12 mo. 18, 

1820. 
Wm. H. Dillingham, Esq , West Chester, 

Pa., 12 mo. 18, 1820. 
John Paxson, Bensalem, Bucks Co., 12 mo. 

18, 1820. 
Daniel Neall, V. Pres't, Phila., Pa., 12 

mo. 18, 1820. 
Harman Yerkes, Jr., Whitemarsh, Pa., 12 

mo. 18. 1820. 
Joseph P. Norris, Jr., (del.), Phila., Pa., 3 

mo. 5, 1821. 
Edward B. Garrigues, Sec'y, (del), Phila., 

Pa., 3 mo. 5, 1821. 
Wm. Baker, (del.), Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 5, 

1821. 
Jesse W. Newport, (del.), Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 

5, 1821. 
John Livezey, Jr., Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 5, 1821. 
Aquila Bolton, " " 

James Hutchinson, " " 

Aaron P. Wright, " " 

Wm. J. Brooks, W. Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 5, 1821. 
Jason L. Fennimore, " " 

Thomas Penrose, " " 

George Getz, Reading, Pa., " 

Walker Moore, Delaware, 6 mo. 18, 182 1. 
Joseph Phipps, Whitemarsh, Pa., 6 mo. iS, 

1821. 
Joseph Knight, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 18, 1821 



64 



Joseph Evans, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 18, 1821. 

Henry Woodman, Tredemn, " 

Wm. R. Smith, Phila., Pa., 

Samuel Budd, " 

Hudson Middleton, " 

Samuel F. Moore, " " 

Dr. Edwin P. Atlee, Sec'y, (del. and Sec'y 

of Abolition Convention, Phila., Pa., 12 

mo. 3, 1 82 1. 
Isaac Elliott, " 12 mo. 3. 1821. 

Joseph H. Smith, Phila., Pa., j2mo. 3, 1821. 
John Sarchett, " 

[ames Starr, Phila, Pa., 12 mo. 3, 1821. 
Chas. W. Starr, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 3, 1821. 
EbenezerLevick, " 
Jesse J. Spencer, Gwynned, Montg. Co., Pa., 

12 mo. 3, 1 82 1. 
Evan Jones, Gwynned, Montg. Co., Pa., 12 

mo. 3, 1821. 
Chas. Jones, Norristown, Pa., 12 mo. 3, 1 82 1. 
Sam'l Edwards, Atty., Chester, Del. Co. Pa., 

12 mo. 3, 1 82 1. 
Isaiah Hacker, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 13, 1822, 
David S. Brown, " " 

Paul K. Hubbs, 
John Jenkins, " 

Jos.W. Rowland, (del.)" 
Benj. Hanna, New Lisbon, O., 6 mo. 6, 1822. 
Dr. Benj. Ellis, Phila., Pa., 
Alex. McDonald, " 3 mo. 4, 1821. 

Isaac Lawrence, " " 

Uriah Hunt, " " 

Marshall Attmore, " 9 mo. 25, 1823. 
Joseph Todhunter, " 12 mo. 25, 1823. 
Wm. Brown, P., " 3 mo. 30, 1826. 

David C. Wood. " " 

Thos. A. Alexander, " " 

Ellwood Walter, " " 

Wm. J. Kirk, 
Wm. S. Hallowell, 
John Bouvier, Esq., (del.) Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 

30, 1826. 
Wm. Jones, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 27, 1826. 
Samuel Ross, " " 

Isaac Williamson, " " 

Robert Evans, " " 

Edwin Walter, Sec'y, Phila, Pa., 6 mo. 27, 

1826. 
Chas. S. Cope, (del. and Sec'y of Abolition 

Con.), Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 27, 1826. 
Jesse Stanley, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 27, 1S26. 
Isaac Albertson, ," . 12 mo. 27, 1827. 

Ezekiel Birdseye, Alabama, " 

Jas. R. Wii.son, Sc'y. Phila., Pa., " 
Sam'l C. Sheppard, (del.) " 
Samuel Bispham, " " 

Milton Smith, " 9 mo. 25, 1828. 

Dr. Caleb Ash, " " 



Enoch Lewis, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 25, 1828. 
Elliott Cresson, " " 

Chas. Evans, (machinist), " " 

Samuel C. Cooper, " " 

James Rowland, Jr., " '' 

Thomas Booth, " " 

James H. Lord, '' 6 mo. 25, 1829. 

Wm. Pritchett, " " 

Chas. Alexander, " " 

Joseph Sill, " " 

Wm. Yates, " " 

Dr. George Harris, 

Samuel Clarke Atkinson, " 10 mo. 7, 1S30. 
Joshua C. Jenkins, " 

Joshua T. Jeanes, V. Pres't, Phila, Pa., 10 

mo. 7, 1S30. 
Joseph R. Bolton, Phila., Pa., 10 mo. 7, 1830. 
Dr. Geo. Burroughs, " " 

Wm. L. Ward, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 30, 1831. 
John Paul, Jr., " 3 mo. 29, 1832. 

Thomas Bowman, " " 

Dr. Robert H. Rose, Silver Lake, Susq'na 

Co., 3 mo. 29, 1832. 
Wm. S. Hansell, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 12, 1832. 
Thomas George, " " 

Dr. Isaac Parrish, V. Pres't, Phila., Pa., 

9 mo. 27, 1832. 
George Sharswood, Esq., Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 

27, 1832. 

Benj. W. Bracken, Phila, Pa., 9 mo. 27, 1832. 
Daniel Maule, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 27, 1832. 
Dillwyn Parrish, Pres't, (del.) Phila, Pa., 

12 mo. 27, 1832. 
Thomas Winn, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 28, 1833. 
George Griscom, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 

28, 1833. 

Matthew Semple, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 28, 1833. 
Stacy Gauntt, " '' 

Dr. Fred Turnpenny, " " 

Wm. A. Cochran, " " 

Israel Corbit, " 9 mo. 26, 1833. 

Chas. Gilpin, Phila, Pa., 9 mo. 26, 1833. 
Wm. Henry, " " 

Wm. Lloyd Garrison, Boston, Mass., 9 mo. 

26, 1833. 
Arnold Buffum, Boston, Mass. " 

Benj. C. Bacon, Sec'y, Boston, Mass., after- 
wards Phila, Pa., 9 mo. 26, 1833. 
John G. Whittier, Amesbury, Mass., 9 mo. 

26, 1833. 
Samuel J. May, Brooklyn, Conn., 9 mo. 26, 

1833- 
Simeon Jocelyn, New Haven, Mass., 9 mo. 

26, 1833. 
Arthur Tappan, New York, 9 mo. 26, 1833. 
Chas. W. Dennison, " " 

Benj. Lundy, (del.) Maryland, " 

James Wood, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 26, 1833. 



65 



Wm. Dorsey, Phila, Pa., 12 mo. 26, 1833. 

Caleu Clothier, Treas., Phila, 3 mo. 27, 
1S34. 

Robert Alsop, " 3 mo. 27, 1834. 

Wm. J. Wainwright, " 9 mo 25, 1834. 

Clayton Gaskill, " " 

Wm. Whitman, " " 

Wm. C Betts, Sec'y, " " 

Joseph Roberts, Jr., " 6 mo. 25, 1835. 

Benj. S. Jones, " 3 mo. 31, 1836. 

Chas. Wise, Libr'an, " " 

Chas. Evans, " " 

Wm A. Garrigues, (del.) Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 
31.1836. 

Chas. C.Jackson, Phila, Pa. ,3 mo. 31, 1836. 

George Pennock, " '• 

John Sharp, Jr., " 9 mo. 30, 1836. 

George H Stuart, " " 

Edward Hopper, Sec'y, Phila, Pa., 9 mo. 
30, 1836. 

Lewis C. Gunn, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., (now of 
Cala.) 9 mo. 30, 1836. 

Wm. Harned, V. Pres't, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 
30, 1836. 

James M. Jackson, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 30, 
1836. 

Wm. H. Scott, (del.) Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 30, 

1836. 
John Thomason, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 30, 1836. 

Abijab W. Thayer, " " 

Edward M.Davis, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 29, 1836. 
Wm. Eyre, " 12 mo. 29, 1836. 

George Luther, " '• 

Rev. Henry Grew, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 30, 1837. 

David Knowles, " 3 mo. 30, 1837. 

John V. Wilson, " 3 mo. 30, 1837. 

Warner Justice, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 30, 1837. 
Wm. Sloanaker, " " 

Sylvanus Root, " " 

( rilbertS. Pryor, Phila, Pa., now of Si. Louis 

Mo., 3 mo. 30, 1837. 
Dr. Joshua Rhoads, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., now 

of Jacksonville, 111 , 3 mo. 30, 1837. 
Dan'l McLaughlin, Phila.. Pa.,3 mo. 30, 1837. 
George Alsop, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 30, 1837. 
Dr. Alfred Woodward, " '< 

Wm. H. Elli;,, 

Wm. Johns, " '' 

Benj. J. Leedom, " •' 

John Longstreth, " 

Emlen Stackhouse, " " 

John P. Crozier, Ashton Ridge, Del. Co., 3 

mo. 30, 1837. 
Wm. S. Lower, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 30, 1837. 
Martin Thayer, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 30, 18^7. 
Joshua Mitchell, " 1 mo. 26, 183S. 

Wm. Lindsay, " 3 mo. 29, 1838. 

Chas. II. Thorne, " " 

Eli Dillin, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 28, 1838. 



, Daniel Neall, Jr., Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 
27, 1838. 

Norwood Penrose, " 4 mo. 11, 1839. 

Richard Vaux, " " 

Samuel C. Betts, " 6 mo. 27, 1839. 

Henry Cressman, " 12 mo. 26, 1839. 

John Houghton, " 7 mo. 9, 1840. 

Chas. C. Burleigh, " 9 mo. 24, 1S40. 

Robert E. Evans, *' 12 mo. 31, 1840. 

Wm. D. Parrish, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 
25, 1841. 

Chas. D. Cleaveland, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 30, 
1842. 

Simeon Collins, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 30, 1842. 

Elijah M. Neall, " 6 mo. 30, 1842. 

Stephen Byerly, " " 

Win W. Cansler, " " 

James Paul, Bucks Co., Pa., " 

T Ellwood Chapman, Vice-Prest., Phila., 
Pa., 6 mo. 30, 1842. 

Thomas Hansell, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 30, 1842. 

David White, " " 

John N. Ackley, " ■' 

Amos Stackhouse, " " 

Rollin II. Morgan, " " 

Joseph Lindsay, Sec'y, " " 

Samuel D. Hastings. " now of Wis- 

consin, 6 mo. 30, 1842. 

Wm. Thompson, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 30, 1S42. 

Robert Purvis, " " 

: 1 s, Vice-Prest., Phila., Pa., 
6 mo. 30, 1842. 

J. Miller MeKim, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 27, 1S43. 

John D. Griscom, " 6 mo. 27, 1843. 

HAWORTH WETHERALD, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 
6 mo. 27, 1843. 

James P. Ellis, Phila., Pa.. 12 mo. 28, 1843. 

Hiram S Gilmore, Cincinnati, ()., 12 mo. 28, 

1843. 
Edward Lewis, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 28, 

1844. 
Theodore L. Littlefield, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 

28, 1844. 
Wm. C. Ivins, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 28, 1844. 
Wm. W. Moore, " " 

Lewis Thompsou, Phila., Pa., 71110. 5, 1844. 
Stephen E. Merrihew, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 5. 

1844. 
Henry Kirk White Clarke, Phila. Pa., 7 mo. 

5, 1844. 
Henry Peterson, Phila.. Pa., 7 mo- 5 1844. 
Samuel Porter, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 5 , 1844. 
Stacy Taylor, " 12 mo. 26, 1844. 

Rev. Lucius C. Matlack, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 

27, 1845. 
Dr. Wm. Elder, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 26, 1846. 
Wm. B. Thomas, Phila., Pa.,6mo.25, 1846. 
Jacob B.Shannon, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 25, 1846. 
Win. J. Mullen, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 25, 1,846. 



66 



Truman B. Shew, Phila., Pa., 121110.31, 1846. 
Robert Stackhouse, " " 

Passmore Williamson, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 

3 mo. 25, 1847. 
Wm. J. Canby, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 24, 1847. 
Daniel L. Miller, Jr., " 3 mo. 30, 1848. 

George D. Parrish, " " 

Samuel R. Shipley, " 6 mo. 29, 1848. 

Edward Parrish, " 9 mo. 29, 1848. 

Dr. Alfred L. Kennedy, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 29, 

1848. 
Ezekiel Jackson, " 3 mo. 29, 1849. 

Toseph Healey, Sec'y," 6 mo. 27, 1850. 
Samuel W. Townsend, Phila., Pa., 7 mo. 15, 

1852. 
Dr. Wm. P. Tilden, California, 7 mo. 15, 1852. 
Cyrus Whitson, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 31, 1853. 
John Sneddon, " 3 mo. 31, 1853. 

Joseph M. Truman, Jr., Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 

12 mo. 29, 1853. 
Jonathan Roberts, Jr., Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 29, 

1853. 
George W.Taylor, Phila., now of Chester Co., 

Co., Pa., 12 mo. 29, 1853. 

Samuel Parrish, Phila., Pa , 12 mo. 29, 1853. 

Caleb H. Needles, 

Wm. Birney, " " 

George Orr, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 30, 1854. 

Pliny Earle Chase, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 5, 1855. 

Joshua L. Hallowell, Phila., Pa., 4 mo. 5, 

1855- 
Llewellyn Truman, Phila., Pa., 41110. 2, 1856. 
Augustus B. Shipley, Phila., Pa.,41110. 2, 1856. 
Marmaduke C. Cope, Phila., 6 mo. 26, 1856. 
Anthony M. Kimber, " •" '' 

Francis H. Ray, New York, 3 mo. 26, 1857. 
H. Ryland Warriner, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 25, 

1858. 
Spencer Roberts, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 25, 1858. 
Joseph Yardley, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 30, 185S. 
Amos Hillborn, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 30, 

1858. 
Reuben Tomlinson, Phila., Pa., now of South 

Carolina, 9 mo- 30, 1858. 
Richard P. Hallowell, Boston, Mass , 9 mo. 

30, 1858. 
Samuel S. Ash, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 30, 1858. 
Edward N. Hallowell, Phila., Pa., afterwards 

of Boston, Mass., 3 mo. 31, 1859. 
Enoch Lewis. Jr., Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 31, 1859. 
Thomas W. Braidwood, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 30, 

1859. 
Jas. M'. Walton, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 29,1859. 
Edward H. Steel, Phila., Pa., i2mo. 29,1859. 
Harrison Dixon, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 29, 1859. 
Wm. Heacock, Sec'y, '' " '' 

Lukens Webster, Sec'y, Phila., Pa., 12 mo. 

29, 1859. 



James G. Thompson, now of South Carolina, 

12 mo. 29, 1859. 
Wm. W. Justice, now of S. Carolina, 12 mo. 

29, 1859. 
Jonathan Roberts, Jr., " 12 mo. 29, 1853. 
Wm. Birney, " " 

George Orr, " 3 mo. 30, 1854. 

Isaac H. Clothier, Phila., Pa., 6 mo. 28, i860. 
Dr. Jas. Truman, " " 

Joseph Wood, " " 

Chas. Sumner, Mass., " 

Owen Lovejoy, Illinois, " 

Rev. John G. Fee, Kentucky, 
Joshua R. Giddings, Ohio, 
Frederick Douglass, Washington, D. C, 6 

mo.' 28, i860. 
George Thompson, England, 6 mo. 28, i860. 
Thos. M.Coleman, Phila., Pa., 9 mo. 25, 1S62. 
Augustus Simon, " 

Geo. E.Baker, Washington, D.C., 12 mo. 26, 

1862. 
William M. Levick, Phila., Pa., " 
Macpherson Saunders, " 

Wm. Forster Mitchell, Lynn, Mass., " 
Geo. N. Hobensack, Phila. Pa., 6 mo. 25, 1863. 
Marcellus Balderston, " 
Samuel E. Dickinson, " 
John Moore, " 9 mo. 24, 1863. 

Wm. Folwell, " 3 mo. 31, 1864. 

Alfred H. Love, " 6 mo. 30, 1864. 

Joseph R Rhoads, " 

Henry M. Laing, " 9 mo. 29, 1864. 

Dr. Geo. Truman, " " 

Oliver H. Wilson, " " 

Joseph P. Cooper, " 3 mo. 30, 1865. 

Mordecai Buzby, " 12 mo. 28, 1865. 

Charles Lewars, " 

Peter K. Landis, " " 

Hector Mcintosh, " 3 mo. 29, 1866. 

John W. Hum, " 

Franklin S. Wilson, " 

Abraham W. Haines, " 
John C. Savery, 

Samuel H. Gartley, " 9 mo. 27, 1866. 

John A. Robinson, 

William R. Chapman, " " 

Dr. Wm. Savery, " 

Benjamin P. Hunt, " 12 mo. 27, 1866. 

Edwin L. Dickinson, Wash., D.C., " 
Henry C. Phillips, Phila., Pa., " 

Samuel Conard, Phila., Pa., 3 mo. 28, 1S67. 
Robert R. Corson, " 12 mo 26,1867. 

William Still, " 

Octavius V. Catto, " 

Ebenezer D. Bassett, Phila., 12 mo. 26, 1867. 
Jacob C. White, Jr., 
Stephen Smith, 
William Whipper, 



mo. z6; 186S 



APPENDIX. 



LETTERS FROM PROMINENT FRIENDS OF THE CAUSE. 



State House, Boston, March 29th, 1875. 

My Dear friend StVl: — I have just received your note of the 27th, 
with printed. invitation of The Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the 
Abolition of Slavery, &c. &c, to attend the Centennial Anniversary of 
the Society, in Philadelphia, on the 14th of April next. I thank you, 
individually and as one of the Commi'tee of Arrangements, for kind re- 
membrance of me and for the honor done to me by your invitation. 

How full of wonderful history is the Century' now just chsing; how- 
dark with shame to vast numbers who once were deemed chiefs and 
leaders of the Nation in State and in Church; but how bright with honors 
and glorious triumphs to that grand old Society, in whose name and be- 
half you are now privileged to act! From the days of its infancy, when 
Benjamin Franklin was its first President and Dr. Rush was a member- 
ship in himself, down through the darkest days of Slavery's insolent 
domination and those of its ignominious downfall in the midst of treason 
and rebellion — and to the present hour, when its arduous, perilous, coura- 
geous labors have been spread over One Hundred Years, and it is euter- 
ing into the reward of those labors, — it has deserved well of the Country 
and of Mankind ; it has made for itself a most honorable record ; — "the 
hi' ~>ing of him who was ready to perish" has been continually upon it, in 
all its years ; and it may well receive now, from every friend of our coun- 
try, from every friend of a true and broad humanity, the greeting, "Well 
done, good and faithful servant!" 

My work here forbids my accepting your invitation, which otherwise I 
would joyfully do. My heartiest good wishes are yours for a pleasant and 
absolutely successful occasion — when it shall seem to you all to be the 
blessed in-gathering of the harvest of the seed sown in such darkness and 
discouragement one hundred years ago. 

With respect and aff. ctionate regard. Your friend, 

S \Mri:r, May. 

AYkst New Brtdgeton", 

Stati n Island, N. Y., March 25, 1875. 
Mr. William Stile. 

My Dear Sir:— I have your very kind note of the 20th, and the hand- 
some copy of your book, for which 1 thank you sincereiy. It is, as I see, 
a unique chapter of our history, and an almost indispensable supplement 
5 67 



63 

to Mr. Wilsons History of the Slave Power, showing, as it does, the nature 
of that cruel wrong, aud the heroism of its victims and their friends. 

Your invitation to the Centennial meeting of the 14th of April, is very 
tempting, and I would most gladly join you and your associates in com- 
memorating your good Avork. But I have been long engaged to be in 
Massachusetts on the 19th, and, with ray other necessary duties, it would 
be impossible for me to be with you. But you will be sure of my hearty 
sympathy and God-speed, as in every word aud deed for the elevation of 
every class of your countrymen. 

With great regard, very faithfully yours, 

George William Curtis. 



Kaolin, Pa., 4th Mo. 12th, 1875. 
William Still, Chairman, etc: 

Dear friend : — Thy letter of invitation to the Centennial Anniversary 
of " The Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, 
etc.," signed by thee and by my friends, Dillwyn Parrish, Passmore 
Williamson, Joseph M. Truman, Jr., and Henry M. Laing, also ; together 
with a copy of the programme and a ticket of admission to the platform, 
have been received. It will afford me pleasure thus to unite with my anti- 
slavery friends and coadjutors on that occasion. 

Having in my minority, half a century ago, felt deeply the wrongs 
imposed on so large a portion of my fellow- creatures, so unjustly held in 
slavery, I then deemed it my duty to abstain as far as possible from the 
products obtained by slave labor; and it has ever since seemed to me to 
be a proper Christian testimony against that " sum of all villainies." 

As thou and all the rest of the signers of the invitation, are well 
acquainted with my twenty years' effort in Philadelphia, to promote the 
free labor testimony, I need only to allude to it; if, indeed, a becoming 
modesty should not even preclude any reference to my connection with it 
at all. 

It will afford me great pleasure to find present, in the capacity of chair- 
man, the Hon. Henry Wilson, Vice President of the United States, whom 
I should gladly welcome as our next President of the TJ. S. It will be 
very pleasant also, to meet those who are expected to speak on the occa- 
sion. Very truly thy friend, 

Geo. W. Taylor. 



New York, 4th Mo. 9, 1875. 
Dillwyn Parrish, William Still, and others, Committee of Arrange- 
ments : 
Dear friends: — I find, since acknowledging a few days ago, the receipt 
of your invitation, and expressing a purpose to attend your approaching 
Centennial Anniversary, on the 14th inst., that I shall be detained by 
duties here. 

The anniversary which you commemorate, will have a peculiar and 
exceptional interest to all who shared in the labors of the anti-slavery 



69 

conflict, and to all who realize the philanthropic need vvhich still remains 
to aid those who were so lately enslaved, to surmount and conquer the 
disabilities by which they are still surrounded. 

While rejoicing, as all may and should, with reverent thanksgiving 
over the great and beneficent work accomplished in the emancipation or 
four million of slaves, I trust the members and friends of your venerable 
and truly honorable society, will still continue its important and much- 
needed efforts for " improving the condition of the African race," until 
colored people are also emancipated from the yet prevalent, oppressive, 
cruel, and unchristian spirit of caste. Regretting that I shall not have 
the pleasure of meeting with you, a I had hoped, 

I am cordially yours, Aaron M. Powell. 



311 East G2d Street, New York, April 11, 1875. 

My Dear Brother Still: — I have your letter forwarding to me the invi- 
tation of the Committee of the Centennial Anniversary of the Pennsyl- 
vania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, etc., to be present, 
and participate in said Centennial ; for which, please accept for yourself, 
and others of the Committee, my thanks. I should have made an earlier 
reply, had I not hoped to have been present with you, which would have 
heen very gratifying ; but finding that I could not be, it is due to you that 
I should acknowledge the receipt of your invitation. 

Allow me to say that although a Decade has past since Chattel Slavery 
ceased to exist in our Country, and therefore the system, the Abolition of 
which was the prime ohject which led to the formation and continuance 
of your Society, yet I think it is commendable in the Managers thereof, 
that they have continued its existence to its Centennial year. No other 
former Philanthropic Voluntary Association connected with American 
History has lived to reach its Century; and it will be news to the 
American People that your Society is a year older than the American 
Xation, as it will that a Ceutennial ago your predecessors associated 
themselves to war against Slavery. 

Although Slavery is gone, and its victims are recognized in law as 
American Citizens, and the equals of other American Citizens, yet the sad 
fruits of the system remaiu ; in the memory, ignorance and moral turpitude 
which it fostered and entailed upon its victims; also in the cherished er- 
roneous ideas of them, and the unchristian prejudice toward them ; all of 
which to correct and eradicate, is the work of years; and which your 
Society, in its future, may well set itself to do ; a work which involves as 
well, the happiness of the whole American People, as it does the higher 
manhood, and the progress and happiness of our brothers, the former vic- 
tims of Slavery. 

I hope Providence will give you Sunny Skies for the occasion, and that 
ihe interest therein, will bring together a goodly number of the veteran 
workers for the Abolition of Slavery, that was. 

Respectfully and Truly, Charles B. Ray. 



70 

Dedham, Mass., March 9, 1875. 

My Dear Mr. Still : — I thank you very much for the kind invitation of the 
Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, etc., which 
you have had the goodness to forward to me. It would give me great 
pleasure to assist at the Centennial Anniversary of that Society, which 
has numbered so many excellent and illustrious men among its members, 
and which has led the way in the moral warfare which has resulted in the 
Abolition of Slavery. But I fear that it will be quite impossible for me 
to do so. I trust that your Celebration will be as successful as your 
warmest wishes could hope for. I am, my dear Mr. Still, 

Very faithfully yours, 

Mr. Wm. Still. Edmund Quincy. 



Boston, April 8th, '75. 
W- Still and others of the Pennsylvania Society in behalf of the colored 
race. Gentlemen and Brethren : — 

Owing to some little mishap,— a slight misnomer in the outward ad- 
dress of your note inviting my attendance and participation in your forth- 
coming "Centennial," of the 14th inst., I did not receive it till too late 
for such expression of my sympathy with the occasion as I would gladly 
have given you. I regret also, to say that I am, just now, too much of an 
invalid to bear the fatigue of even so pleasant a journey as that to which 
you invite me, with the prospect, too, of meeting such dear friends as Dr 
Furness, Garrison, Phillips, Douglass, and Whittier. But I can, at least 
assure you of my cordial sympathy with all the benevolent purposes you 
entertain towards the colored race, as enumerated in your circular. 

It is every way fitting and right that thus in "Philadelphia," the city 
of Brotherly Love, as its name imports, should centre and be manifest such 
largeness of philanthropy, and such breadth of charity ! ' May God Al- 
mighty bless and prosper you therein. 

With renewed expression of my regret at my being unable to visit you 
and participate in your celebration, and with repetition of my commenda- 
tion of your purpose to keep alive benevolent action and service toward 
the colored population everywhere, I am your friend and co-laborer, 

John T. Sargent. 



Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, 4th Mo. 1, 1875. 
To the Committee of Arrangements of the Penna. Abolition Society. 

Dear Friends: — Your invitation to "attend and participate in the Cen- 
tennial Anniversary" of your Society was duly received and the honor 
highly appreciated. 

Much has been said about the sacrifices made in effecting the Emanci- 
pation of the slaves, and promoting the relief of those American citizens 
called Africans. 

I rejoice in the feeling that I cannot remember when I was converted to 
this church of freedom. 



71 

It must have been in the blood, for from my first knowledge of the 
institution of the hateful system of slavery I loathed it as a vile curse on 
the earth. 

Notwithstanding I have with many better men and women, been ana- 
thematized for participating in this movement, I feel this day with 
whiteued beard, that I have made no sacrifices — but found it all the way 
through a compensating business, and I am richer for whatever I have 
said or done on behalf of the oppressed. 

Though my tabernacle of flesh will be on the western side of the Mis- 
sissippi, my spirit will leap over the prairies and mountains to mingle 
with, and breathe a benediction upon you, on the deeply interesting occa- 
sion of your centennial. I shall pray without ceasing that those who cel- 
ebrate the next, may witness the entire extermination of slavery from the 
world, and the establishment of a code of peace among the nations that 
shall supercede forever the bloody scourge of war on the battle field. 

With very kind consideration I am your cordial friend, 

Joseph A. Dugdale. 



61 W. 17th Street, New York, April 10, 1874. 
My Dear Mr. Still: 

I find that I must forego the pleasure of attending the Centennial Anni- 
versary of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, to which you so cordially 
invite me. I very much regret to lose such an opportunity of greeting 
men and women, to whose faithful labors the country is so deeply indebted, 
for the extinction of American slavery, and for all the blessings that have 
followed that grand achievement. As your society was the earliest of all 
the anti-slavery associations formed in this country, so, also, I believe, is 
it the only one that survives the accomplishment of its main purpose, and 
remains in the field to assist in the education and development of the 
emancipated class. That its labors to this end may be abundantly blessed, 
and that your celebration may serve to deepen and intensify in the hearts 
of the American people, the love of universal liberty, is the desire and 
hope of 

Yours, fraternally, Oliver Johnson. 



103 W. Springfield St., Boston, April 8th, 1875. 

My Dear Friend, Wm. Still : — I am very glad that our friends of the 
old "Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and 
for the Relief of Free Negroes unlawfully held in Bondage, and for Im- 
proving the condition of the African Race" — are going to commemorate 
the Centennial of its formation. 

So quiet and Quaker-like have been the operations of the Society, that 
most of us, at this distance, hardly knew of its existence and history, nor 
of the amount of good it had been doing, in its silent, unobtrusive way, for 
so long a period. 



72 

I tru3t that the very competent Committee, who have the management 
of the meeting in hand, and especially the Historical Orator, Dr. Wm. 
Elder, — will furnish to the world, from the ample materials in their pos- 
session, a connected story of the doings of the Society, — culminating in 
the wider and better-known operations of the Anti-slavery movements of 
our own time. 

I should enjoy very much the meeting of dear old friends of Reform on 
that occasion, but must deny myself that pleasure. 

With kind remembrances of yourself and of your valuable work — the 
"Underground Railroad," I am Cordially Yours, 

Robert F. Wallcut. 



Irvington, Ind., April 9, 1875. 
Dear Mr. Still: — 

Your letter inviting me to attend the Centennial Anniversary of "The 
Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of .Slavery," on the 14th 
of the present month, was received a few days since. It would afford 
very great pleasure to be able to accept this invitation, but circumstances, 
I fear, will make it impracticable. I shall, however, be with you, at all 
events, in heart. It is certainly fit that the anniversary of this venerable 
and historical Society, should be celebrated. It is fit that it should pub- 
licly recognize the unwelcome fact that its work as yet, is only done in 
part. It is fit that the surviving representatives and champions of the 
Anti Slavery cause, should hold this timely and soul-inspiring re-union, 
and freely confer with each other as to the work of the future, while 
cherishing the precious memories of the past. And it is fit that they 
should prepare "an authentic, impartial, and comprehensive record of 
their action" respecting the grandest battle the world has yet witnessed, 
for the Rights of Man. This is a duty which they owe alike to them- 
selves and to their country, and its postponement should not be permitted. 

Earnestly hoping that your gathering may be largely attended, and that 
the blessing of God may crown its labors, I am, 

Very faithfully yours, 

Geo. W. Julian. 



Newport, R. I., April 12, 1875. 
Wm. Still, Esq , Chairman of Committee, etc. 

Dear Sir : — It would afford me great pleasure to meet the Pennsylvania 
Society, and to revive the memories of the old times. So rapidly do the 
years go on, that it is already hard to convince ourselves that slavery has 
existed during our life-time. It seems, rather, as if its memories were all 
a dream, or as if we had lived two lives. But the work that it did for 
our moral development, as individuals, never can be undone; and I hope 
we are all applying its lessons to the reforms which are still uncompleted. 
Very cordially yours, Thos. Wentworth Higginson. 



73 

Charleston, S. C, April 9tii, '75. 
To Dillwyn Parrish and others : — 

Dear friends: — I have been honored with your invitation to attend the 
Centennial Anniversary of " the Pennsylvania Society for promoting the 
Abolition of Slavery and for the relief of Free Negroes unlawfully held 
in bondage, and for improving the condition of the African Race," and 
sincerely regret that it will be impossible to meet with you on that most 
interesting occasion. The prime purpose for which the Society was or- 
ganized, as indicated in its title, has been accomplished ; its secondary 
purpose (if it cau be considered secondary) the improvement of the condi- 
tion of the African race, still continues to call for the most earnest and 
intelligent action of the members of this venerable Society. 

Venerable! not so much for its years, as for the character and service 
of those who founded it, aud gave vitality to its beneficent purposes. 

Full of sympathy for its past attainments, and with what I believe to 
be its hopes for the future, I would say as my deliberate judgment, after 
an experience of nearly thirteen years in the South, and with a full 
appreciation of all the details to be overcome, that the highest hopes 
of the Society with reference to the improvement of the colored people 
are certain of fulfilment. 

It is wise to see and understand all the obstacles in the shape of igno- 
rance, vice, and selfishness, that have to be overcome; but it is foolish to 
be able to see nothing but these. 

If the intelligence of the country will do its duty the future is secured. 
But that is a sham intelligence which seeks to justify its own apathy and 
indifference by assertions of the hopelessness of attempting to remove the 
ignorance and vice bequeathed to us by slavery. 

The more apparently hopeless the task the more manly and earnestly 
it should be encountered, and while the members of our old Society in 
entering upon the second ceutury of its existence may feel that an immense 
work is yet to be done, they may also feel sure from the past experience 
of their Society that to brave, and earnest hearts, aud wise judgments no 
work which has for its object the improvement of the condition of man, is 
impossible of accomplishment. 

My faith is unfaltering, notwithstanding the wiles of demagogues, who 
seek to abuse the confidence of the colored man to his own ruin ; the bit- 
terness of that prejudice which seeks to crush him, and the easy facility 
with which he serves the purposes of both these dangerous foes, that he 
will yet make a self-respecting and useful citizen. This faith 1 hold 
not because-he is a colored man, but because he is a man. 

I am very truly your friend, Reuben Tomlinson. 



Harrisburg, Pa., April 12th, 1875. 
To William Still, Esq , of Committee of Arrangements for Anti Slavery 
Centennial. 
Dear Sir: — Accept my thauks for invitation to be present at your pro- 
posed re-union. It would give ine great pleasure to accept, but my present 



74 

engagements and public business forbid. All honor to the noble heroes 
and heroines of Liberty, who pioneered the path of the True Republic, and 
to you, who so assiduously encouraged the victim of Oppression on his way 
to Freedom. God bless the meeting! Yours, very truly, 

William Howard Day. 



Mayor's Office, Philadelphia, March 31st, 1875. 
W. Still, Esqr. 

Dear Sir : — Your invitation to be present at the "Centennial Anni- 
versary of the Pennsylvania Society, fof Promoting the Abolition of 
Slavery, and for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully held in Bondage, 
and for Improving the condition of the African Race," to be celebrated 
on the 14th day of April prox. was received. 

I assure you and the gentlemen composing the Committee of Arrange- 
ments, that it will afford me much pleasure to be with you on the occasion 
designated. With respect, I am, 

W. S. Stokley, Mayor. 



Hampton, Va., April 2, 1875. 
My Dear Mr. Still : — 

Your very kind invitation to the Centennial of the Pennsylvania Aboli- 
tion Society, is received. I shall be there if I can. The way is hard y 
clear, for I am compelled to be in Boston at that time, hunting for funds 
to carry on this school — we are hard pressed — necessity is upon us. Please 
tell Mr. Parrish that I am too much the slave of my work, to be able to 
attend, so far as I can now see. 

It will be a grand time. The Hampton singers are in the western part 
of New York State now, and have already made engagements to sing, 
covering the 14th, and several days later. I am very sorry. We are all 
of us doing things with all our might. Yours, sincerely, 

S. C. Armstrong. 



Chicago, April Gth, 1875. 
Dear Mr. Still : — 

It would be a great pleasure if time and tide would permit, to come to 
the Centennial of the old Pioneer Society for the Abolition of Slavery. 
But there m no chance. I must stay home and get my share of your good 
time through the papers, and send all good wishes to and for those who 
have the good luck to be present. Very truly yours, 

Robert Collyer. 



New York, April 2d, 1875. 
Gentlemen : — To attend your celebration would give methesincerest plea- 
sure. It is precisely one of the things I should rejoice in doing, to live over 
the glorious days, and to exchange congratulations on the grand achieve- 
ment. But an anniversary will keep me at home on that very day, the 



75 



14th, so that I can only have your thanksgiving through sympathy. I 
shall, however, share it, sir, that way, and shall remember gratefully, that 
you invited me to be with you in person as well as in spirit. 

Sincerely yours, 

0. B. Feothingham. 



Executive Mansion, Harrisburg, Pa. 
William Still, Esq., No. 700 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Dear Sir: — I shall take great pleasure in attending the Centennial 
Anniversary of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of 
Slavery on Wednesday next, if my health and public engagements here 
will permit. .Respectfully Yours, 

J. F. Hartranft, Governor. 



Westbury, 4th Mo. 6, '75. 

William Still: 

Dear friend: — The kind invitation from the Committee of Arrange- 
ments, to unite in celebrating the Centennial Anniversary; it would give 
us much pleasure to meet the friends and laborers in the cause, and review 
the past, so full of incident, and so full, too, of blessed and holy memories, 
which are enshrined on our inner consciousness ; but on account of illness 
in our family circle, fear we shall have to forego the pleasure of being with 
you. Very respectfully, etc , 

Josepii & Mary Post. 



Columbia, S. C, April 5, 1875. 
William Still, Esq , Chairman Centennial Anniversary. 

Dear Sir: — I regret that it will be impossible for me to be present at 
the Centennial meeting, and I wish, through you, to offer my congratula- 
tions to those who will be there on the triumph of the cause of universal 
liberty, which we all had so much at heart, and for which we labored 
when we scarcely dared hope for success. 

The war made many things possible; perhaps as curious as any of the 
changes, was that my father, Lewis Thompson, should pass the last years 
of his life in South Carolina, and die peacefully in the State, which, only 
a few years before, would have hurried him and all his abolition friends 
to violent death. 

I am editing a Republican newspaper here. My brother Lewis, is an 
army officer, now on leave and visiting me; he also desires to be remem- 
bered to the friends in Philadelphia. Very truly, yours, 

James G. Thompson. 



Executive Mansion, Washington, April oth, 1875. 
Mr. William Still, 700 Arch Street, Phila. 

Sir: — The President directs me to acknowledge the receipt of your note, 
enclosing invitation for the 14th inst, and to convey to you and the mem- 



76 

bers of the Committee, many thanks for the kind attention. He regrets 
that he will be unable to visit Philadelphia at that time. 
I am Sir, very respectfully yours, 

Levi P. Luckey, Secretary. 



Philadelphia, Pa., April 1st, 1875. 
William Still, Esq., Chairman. 

My Dear Sir: — I shall be much pleased to accept the kind invitation 
with which you have honored me to be present at the Centennial Anni- 
versary of " The Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of 
Slavery and the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully held in Bondage, and 
for improving the Condition of the African Race." The fact of this anni- 
versary occurring on the fourteenth of April, cannot fail to add to the 
interest of the occasion. Yo urs, very respectfully, 

Rufus Saxton. 



Lincoln, Loudoun Co., Va., 4th month, 6ih, 1875. 

To Dillwyn Parrish, William Still, Passmore Williamson, 
Joseph M. Truman, Jr., Henry M. Lang, Philadelphia. 

Respected friends:— I acknowledge the receipt of your kind invitation 
to attend the Centennial Anniversary of the Pennsylvania Society, for 
Promoting the Abolition of Slavery. It would give me much pleasure 
to participate in the meetings proposed to be held, but I have no prospect 
of being present, and mutt content myself with the expression of my 
sincere desire that your proceedings may tend to elucidate and preserve, 
for the benefit of posterity, many important facts in the history of the 
Anti-Slavery cause. 

That great system of wrong, American Slavery, has come to an end ; 
not in the way that we anticipated, but in the ordering of Divine Provi- 
dence, by means that could not be foreseen by human wisdom, nor frus- 
trated by human depravity. 

There remains yet a great work to be done, in promoting the moral 
elevation and religious instruction of the colored race in this country. 
On the success of this wnrk depends not only their welfare, but the pros- 
perity of the American Union, whh-h can only be sustained by the virtue 
and intelligence of the people. Very Respectfully your friend, 

Saml. M. Janney. 



MEMORANDUM OF ANTI-SLAVERY ACTION IN THE 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA AND VIRGINIA. 

By Samuel M. Janney. 

As one of the purposes intended by the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, 
in celebrating their Centennial Anniversary, is "to present an impaitial 
and comprehensive record of their action, as well as a general history of 



the Anti-Slavery cause," I deem it proper to give some account of efforts 
made to promote that cause in the District of Columbia and the northern 
part of Virginia. 

About fifty years ago, there existed in Washington city an Anti-Slavery 
Society, the title of which I do not remember, and in Alexandria, then a 
part of the District of Columbia, we had an association composed mostly 
of Friends, and a few Methodists, called the Benevolent Society of Alex- 
andria, for ameliorating and improving the condition of the people of 
color. To rescue from the possession of slave traders persons illegally 
held in bondage, and to enlighten the public mind in regard to the evils 
of slavery, were two of the main objects we had in view. 

I think these Societies were, at one time, represented in a convention 
held in Philadelphia, by invitation of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society. 

At that time the domestic slave trade was actively carried on in Wash- 
ington and Alexandria, and among its victims were some who were 
free-born, or were slaves only for a term of years. These we sometimes 
succeeded in rescuing by a legal process, but not unfrequently, they were 
carried off by the traders before we received information of their captivity. 
On behalf of the Benevolent Society a series of essays were written on 
slavery and the domestic slave trade, which, in the year 1827, were pub- 
lished in the Alexandria Gazette, a paper that had a considerable circu- 
lation in Virginia. The opposition to such publications was not then so 
great in Virginia, as it became a few years later, and the views we pro- 
mulgated, adverse to Slavery, were read without producing any demon- 
strations of violence. Slavery was then generally acknowledged to be an 
evil entailed upon us by former generations, which, it was alleged, could 
not be removed without much danger: and most of the slaveholders main- 
tained that the slaves, when liberated, must be colonized in some foreign 
country. 

The Benevolent Society of Alexandria in conjunction with the Anti- 
Slavery Society in Washington, about the year 1827, got up a petition to 
Congress for the abolition of slavery, and the slave trade in the District 
of Columbia. We obtained the signatures of about a thousand respect- 
able citizens, among whom were prominent merchants and judges of the 
District Courts. I remember that while soliciting signatures, I called on 
George Washington Park Custis, the proprietor of the Arlington estate. 
He treated me with civility, and admitted the evils of slavery, but de- 
clined to sign the petition. He spoke freely of the unproductiveness of 
-lave labor, and said, "I am accounted the third among the richest men 
of Virginia, and yet I seldom have a dollar." His patriotism shone forth 
in his eloquent orations, but he made no efforts, nor submitted to any 
sacrifices to remove an evil that, I believe, be sincerely deplored. He did, 
however, follow the example of Washington, by providing in his will for 
the liberation of his slaves. 

Our petition was presented to Congress, and although it seemed to pro- 
duce no immediate effect, it was in subsequent years, sometimes referred 
to, in the earnest debates that took place on the subject of Slavery. We 
did not petition for the immediate abolition of Slavery, which would have 



78 

been a just and safe measure, but in deference to the prejudices of many 
whose signatures were solicited, we asked that a law of Congress might be 
passed, declaring that all children of slaves born in the District, after the 
4th of July, 1828, should be free at the age of 25 years, andthat laws 
might be enacted to prevent slaves being removed from the District, or 
brought in for sale, hire or transportation. If this measure, inadequate 
as it appears, had been adopted, it might have led to similar legislation 
in Maryland and Virginia, and possibly the awful calamity of civil war 
might have been averted. 

I have no records to show any further action of the Anti-Slavery Asso- 
ciations in Washington and Alexandria. After some years they ceased 
to exist, but some of those who had been members of them, continued to 
feel the same interest in the cause of human liberty, and to manifest their 
zeal by publications showing the disastrous effects of Slavery. 

In the years 1844 and 1845, a number of essays over the signature of a 
Virginian were published, — showing the injustice and impolicy of Slave- 
holding, and pointing out the benefits that would result from emancipa- 
tion. Some of these essays were published in the Saturday Visitor of 
Baltimore, edited by Dr. J. E. Snodgrass ; some in the Alexandria Gazette, 
and others in the Richmond Whig, an influential paper edited by J. 
Hampden Pleasants. Extra numbers of the papers were purchased for 
distribution, and several of the essays were printed in pamphlet form, and 
extensively circulated in Maryland and Virginia. 

The funds to pay for printing were mostly contributed by Friends in 
Philadelphia. 



Amesbury, 11th, 4 Mo., 1875. 
To Dillwyn Parish : 

Dear Friend : The enclosed document has been forwarded to me by an 
eminent lawyer of Richmond, Va. (also enclosed) requesting me to pre- 
sent it to the Centennial meeting. It speaks for itself. Nothing more 
severely condemnatory of slavery was ever spoken by Garrison or Sumner, 
or acted by John Brown, than this noble and Christian testimony of 
Richard Randolph, the brother of John Randolph, of Roanoke. 

Does it not forcibly recall that wonderful death-scene so graphically 
depicted by thy father who was called to witness the bequest of liberty to 
his slaves by John Randolph ? Surely there was something noble and 
generous in the blood of those old Virginians ! 

If the Pennsylvania Abolition Society need any justification of its 
doings for a century past it is furnished by this document. For its object 
has been to save men from the condition so sternly characterized by the 
testator as barbarous and cruel, and infamous ; a lawless and monstrous 
tyranny. 

Let us thank the Divine Providence that we have been permitted to 
see the end of the " accursed thing," against which Richard Randolph 
bore his emphatic testimony. I am truly thy friend, 

John G. Whittier. 



79 

richard Randolph's will. 

To all whom it may Concern : I, Richard Randolph, jun'r of Bozarre, in 
the County of Cumberland, of sound mind and memory, do make this 
writing — written with my own hand and subscribed with my name, this 
eighteenth day of February in the twentieth year of the American inde- 
pendence, to be my last will and testament, in form and substance as fol- 
lows: 

In the first place, to make retribution, as far as I am able, to an 
unfortunate race of bondmen, over whom my ancestors have usurped and 
exercised the most lawless and monstrous tyranny, and in whom my 
countrymen by their iniquitous laws, in contradiction of their own declara- 
tion of rights, and in violation of every sound law of nature, of the inherent, 
inalienable and imprescriptible rights of man ; and of every moral and 
political honesty, have vested me with absolute property. To express my 
abhorrence of the theory as well as infamous practice of usurping the 
rights of our fellow creatures equally entitled with ourselves to the enjoy- 
ment of liberty and happiness. To exculpate myself to those who may 
perchance to think or hear of me after death from the black crime, which 
might otherwise be imputed to me, of voluntarily holding the above- 
mentioned miserable beings in the same state of abject slavery in which I 
found them on receiving my patrimony at lawful age. To "impress my 
children with just horror at a crime so enormous and indelible. To con- 
jure them in the last words of a fond father never to participate in it in 
any— the remotest degree, however sanctioned by laws (framed by the 
tyrants themselves who oppress them), or supported by false reasoning 
used always to veil the sordid views of avarice and the lust of power. To 
declare to them and to the world that nothing but uncontrollable necessity 
— forced on me by my father, who wrongfully bound over men to satisfy 
the rapacious creditors of a brother— who for this purpose, which he falsely 
believed to be generous, mortgaged all his slaves to British harpies, for 
money to -ratify pride and pamper sensuality ; by which mortgage the 
said slaves being bound, I could not exercise the right of ownership neces- 
sary to their emancipation; and being obliged to keep them on my land 
was driven reluctantly to violate them in a great degree (though I trust 
far less than others have done) in order to maintain them ; that nothing, 
1 say, short of this necessity should have forced me to an act which my, 
soul abhors. For the aforesaid purposes, and with an indignation too 
great for utterance at the tyrants of the earth— from the throned despot 
of a whole nation to the most despicable but not less infamous petty tor- 
mentor of a single wretched slave, whose torture constitutes his wealth and 
enjoyment. I do truly declare that it is my will and desire, nay, most 
anxious wish, that my negroes, all of them, be liberated, and 1 do declare 
them, by this writing, free and emancipated to all intents and purposes 
whatsoever : fully and freely exonerated from all further service to my 
heirs, executors or assigns, and altogether as free as the illiberal laws will 
permit them to he. I mean herein to include all and every slave of which 
I die possessed or to which I have any claim by inheritance or otherwise. 
I thus yield them up their liberty basely wrested from them by my fore- 



80 

fathers and beg, humbly beg, their forgiveness for the manifold injuries I 
have too often inhumanly, unjustly and mercilessly inflicted on them. And 
I do further declare that it is my will, that if I shall- be so unfortunate as 
to die possessed of any slaves (which I will not do if I can ever be enabled 
to emancipate them legally) and the 'said slaves shall be liable for my 
father's debts and sold for them ; that in that case five hundred pounds 
be raised from my other estate, real or personal, as my wife shall think 
best, and in any manner she may choose and applied to the purchase at 
such sale of such of the said miserable slaves as have been most worthy ; 
to be judged of by my said wife, which said slaves I do hereby declare 
free as soon as they are purchased to all intents and purposes whatsoever ; 
and in case I emancipate the said slaves (which I shall surely do the first 
moment possible) I do devise, give and bequeath to them the said slaves, 
four hundred acres of my land, to be laid off as my wife shall direct, and 
to be given to the heads of families in proportion to the number of the 
children and the merits of the parties, as my said wife shall judge for the 
best. The laud to be laid off where and how my said wife shall direct, 
and to be held by the said slaves when allotted to them in fee. I do like- 
wise coujure my said wife to lend every assistance to the said slaves thro' 
life in her«power ; and to rear our children up to the same practice and 
leave it on them as her latest injunction — and to do everything directed 
above relative to the said slaves. 

I now proceed to direct the manner in which my other property is to be 
disposed of (having fulfilled this first and greatest duty and most anxious 
and zealous wish to befriend the miserable and persecuted of whatsoever 
nation, color or degree), by my will as here seen written on this and another 
sheet of paper, each signed by my own hand and with my own name and 
connected together by wafers. 

R'd Randolph, Jun'r. 

In the second place, I give and bequeath to my wife, Judith Randolph 
all my personal estate remaining of whatsoever nature animate, inanimate 
in possession or in action, claimed or to be claimed, right or title whatso- 
ever to her sole use and disposal forever that [torn out] exclusive of 
slaves. I likewise give, devise and bequeath to my said wife all my real 
estate whatsoever of which I die possessed and also all to which I have 
any claim or title whatsoever to her and to her heirs, in full confidence 
that she will do the most ample justice to our children by making them 
independent as soon as they are of age — if she remains single — or by 
securing them a comfortable support by settlement on them before any 
marriage into which she may hereafter resolve to enter (which if she do 
marry will be the only certain mode of providing for them) and by 
educating them as well as her fortune will enable her. The only anxiety 
I feel on their account arises from a fear of her maternal tenderness lead- 
ing her to too great indulgence of them, against which I beg leave thus to 
caution her. I now consign them to her affectionate love, desiring that 
they be educated in some profession — or trade if they be incapable of a 
liberal profession, and that they be instructed in virtue and in the most 



81 

zealous principles of liberty and manly independence. I dedicate them to 
that virtue and that liberty which I trust will protect their infancy and of 
which I conjure them to be the indefatigable and incorruptible supporters 
through life. I request my wife frequently to read this my will to my 
tenderly beloved children, that they may know something of their father's 
heart when they have forgotten his person. Let them be virtuous and free 
— the rest is vain. 

Finally, I entreat my wife to consider the above confidence as the strong- 
est possible proof of the estimation and ardent love which I have always 
uniformly felt for her and which must be the latest impulse of my heart. 

I hereby appoint my said wife sole executrix of this my last will and 
testament, but in case I should be so unfortunate as to be left by her 
single and die without any other will than this executed by me, I appoint 
in that case as my executors (requesting their attention to my injunction 
on my wife above mentioned, relying on them to execute them and the 
directions in my said will as she will otherwise do) to-wit, the following 
most esteemed friends: my father-in-law, S. George Tucker, my brother, 
John Randolph, my friends, Ryland Randolph, Brett Randolph, Creed 
Taylor, John Thompson, Alexander Campbell, Daniel Call, and the most 
virtuous and incorruptible of mankind and next to my father-in-law — my 
greatest benefactor, George* Wythe, Chancellor of Virginia — the brightest 
ornament of human nature. 1 rely on the aforementioned virtuous friends 
for the punctual execution of my will, the care and guardianship of my 
children, in case of the death of my wife either before or after me (to 
whom if she live I have entrusted them solely ) ; and to those of them most 
nearly connected with me by friendship I look for assistance of my family 
after my death in all cases of difficulty. If any among them do not 
choose to undertake the task imposed on them by me, I beg them not to 
do so from motives of generosity or delicacy ; and to excuse the liberty 
which (it may appear to some of them least intimately acquainted with 
me) I have taken in thus calling on them. 

In witness of the above directions, which I again declare to be my will 
and testament, drawn by me from calm reflections, I have hereunto sub- 
scribed my name and affixed my seal the day and year aforesaid. 

R'd Randolph, Jun'r., [seal] 
Signed and sealed in the presence 

of the following persons and 

declared to be the last will of 

the above named Richard Ran- 
dolph, junr. 

R v land Randolph. 

At a District Court, held at Prince Edward Court-house, April 8th, 
1797. 

This last will and testament of Richard Randolph jun'r, deceased, w r as 
presented in court by Judith Randolph, executrix therein named, there 
being but one witness to said will, and he not being in court, Miller Wood- 
son and Peter Johnson being sworn, severally deposed that they are well 



82 

acquainted with the testator's handwriting, and verily believe that the 
said will and the name thereto subscribed are all of the testator's proper 
handwriting. Whereupon the said will is ordered to be recorded. And 
on motion of the executrix, therein named, who gave bond with John 
Randolph, Brett Randolph, and Creed Taylor, her securities, in the penalty 
of twelve thousand pounds and took the oath required by law, certificate 
for obtaining a probate thereof in due form is granted her. 

Teste 

F. W ATKINS, C. D. C. 
A Copy — Teste 

B. J. WORSHAM, 
C'lk Prince Edward Circ Sup'r Court. 



Enon Valley, Pa., 8 April, 1875. 
To "VVm. Still, Esq., Chairman: — 

I have received your invitation to be present at the Centennial Anni- 
versary of "The Pennsylvania Society for promoting Jthe abolition of 
slavery; and for the relief of Free Negroes, &c.'' 

As time is making such fast inroads upon the ranks of the Abolitionists 
it would indeed be pleasant to look once more injfco each other's faces before 
we die. I have an errand to Philadelphia some time the coming Summer, 
and have been trying, since the receipt of your letter, to arrange matters 
so they would allow me to attend the contemplated meeting. But it is 
impossible to do so, and instead of going in person, I must send this letter 
of excu a e. 

It gives me great pleasure to learn, what indeed I might have sus- 
pected, that the Society, now that slavery is passed away, devote their 
funds to sustaining schools of instruction among the Freedmen. I regard 
education as the sovereign panacea for all the troubles of the South ; and 
for the colored man his only salvation, As in Natural History we find 
that the grey and black squirrels disappear in our forests when the red 
squirrel predominates ; and as the brown rat takes his departure when the 
Norway rat makes his appearance; so, the other races of mankind yield 
to the superior power and sagacity of the Anglo Saxon. 

There is but one exception to this rule. The Negro holds his own with 
our proud race, and can live and thrive with us — provided he is educated. 
The next census will show, I apprehend, that under all the trials of the 
transition state from slavery to freedom he has not retrograded in any re- 
spect, but has positively improved in soul, body, and estate. 

I have had from childhood a warm attachment to the colored people ; 
and were I possessed of millions I would be glad to appropriate them to 
the establishment of the best schools and libraries among them every 
where, believing that education and refinement, by making them rmlly 
equal with the whites, would supercede the necessity for Civil Rights 
Bdls, and do more for them than anything else. 

Hoping you will have a good time at the reunion, and regretting sin- 
cerely that I cannot be there, I remain, with much respect, yours, 

A. B. Bradford. 






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